IGF 2016 - Day 0 - Main Hall - Host Country-Led Workshops


The following are the outputs of the real-time captioning taken during the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) in Jalisco, Mexico, from 5 to 9 December 2016. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the event, but should not be treated as an authoritative record. 


>> ENRIQUE ZAPATA:  Thanks a lot.  My name is Enrique Zapata.  On behalf of the Mexican Government, I'd like to welcome foreign nationals, welcome to the country and the 11th meeting of the IGF 2016 meeting.  I would like to ask you to consider the following Emergency Preparedness instructions.  Should an emergency occur, we have a special crew wearing vests.  They will provide with the relevant instructions. 

This is our Day Zero.  Therefore, please consider that one of the IGF meeting is to maximize opportunities to hold an objective, inclusive dialogue relating to Internet Governance topics.  Therefore, in accordance with the spirit of the United Nations and according to the Code of Ethics of IGF, all of us who are part of the event, we have agreed the following.

First of all, to make sure that this is a harassment‑free experience.  To treat every member of the community equally.  Thirdly, to be reasonable, objective, and well informed in every debate platform of the Forum by listening and respecting all parties' opinions. 

Fourth, to be fair and good willing with other participants.  And, five, to promote an ethical and responsible behavior throughout the following days.  The IGF Secretariat reserves the right to define adequate behavior within the Conference, specifically in the areas related to demonstrations or lack of respect shown to other participants or organizers of the meeting.  Due to the fact that IGF adheres to the principles of the United Nations used to deter, participants should restrain from pointing out to individuals, companies, and countries in their participations and in the materials they distribute.  Not complying with the above guidelines would make you leave the Forum.  To begin today's activities, we have with us Victor Lagunes from the President's Office.  Victor is the Director‑General for ITCs where he's responsible for the implementation of Federal Public Policy in terms of e‑Government.  Besides, he was honorary Co‑Chair of the MAG of IGF.

[ Applause ]

>> VICTOR LAGUNES:  Good morning, everyone.  Today, Monday, December the 5th, we'll begin with our Internet Governance Forum Mexico 2016.  Please feel welcome.

The United Nations organization DESA and the IGF Secretariat and Zapopan and the State of Jalisco and the multistakeholder community, thank you and welcome.  This journey began three years ago for us.  We decided to host the IGF this year without the knowledge of its potential.  We support the renewal of the WSIS+10 mandate December of last year where we renewed the IGF's mandate, the Internet Governance Forum.  Today, three years after, when we begin with this journey, we learn how transformational Internet is.  We're digitizing our country by means of initiatives in every single sector.  In Mexico we believe in the multistakeholder model for Internet Governance.

Today and during the following five days, you will be part of this conversation of the events, of the debate, of the most outstanding topics related to the Internet.  We'll have more than 200 sessions of different stakeholders about the critical resources found in the Internet inclusion, digital economy, digital skills, human rights online, among different topics.

This year, the first one in the framework of the new mandate, Mexico takes pride of the fact that we receive more than 3,000 applications to register to attend the Forum.  This is a record figure for this event.  56% of the applications come from Latin America and the Caribbean.  This shows the interest in the region to enhance the debate of Internet Governance in the region.  48% of these applications come from Civil Society organizations showing the relevance of this topic in social and economic development, but in a sustainable and responsible fashion.

Open, free, resilient, safe, decentralized are values with which we have developed the Internet in the last few decades, but today and due to the 2030 agenda and the multistakeholder community, we have a vision in mind, which is the main topic of Mexico's IGF topic Enabling Inclusive and Sustainable Growth.  We wanted to be a tool to have Sustainable Growth in our society.  Enjoy the following days.  I hope these days are very productive, and on behalf of our beautiful country, I would like to say:  Welcome to Mexico.  Thank you very much.

[ Applause ]

>> ENRIQUE ZAPATA:  Thank you very much, Victor.  I would like to introduce Lynn St. Amour, president of the MAG of IGF, and from Internet Matters, a nonprofit organization that deals in topics related to online security.  Let's welcome Madam St. Amour.

[ Applause ]

>> LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you.  I'm not sure I need that mic, as I was mic'd up earlier so I hope the sound is okay.  Thank you, Victor, and very happy to be here and I'd like to thank Ms. Alejandro Lagunes of the Office of The Presidency, Your Excellencies, and dear colleagues.  The 11th annual meeting of the Internet Governance or IGF will officially begin tomorrow, and we're very happy to be here in Mexico given your early and important support for renewing the IGF's mandate, and certainly for all your support through the WSIS+10 events last year.  Your early support was critical I think to the mandate's renewal.  Gave a clear and strong signal on the value of the IGF.  On behalf of the IGF community, we'd like to recognize that support and thank you sincerely.  It really did make a difference.

So I was asked to do a short introduction to the IGF, because I believe it's an extremely valuable resource and can help significantly with the issues Victor posed in his introduction and earlier comments.  So I'll cover a bit of the history and more recent developments as we look forward to the next 10 years.

The IGF was established by the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society, or WSISWSIS was held in two phases, and Internet Governance was a key issue in both.  WSIS 2 recognized the need for broad based discussion of Public Policy issues relating to the Internet and requested the UN Secretary‑General to convene a new Forum for multistakeholder policy dialogue called the Internet Governance Forum.  The mandate in terms of IGF are set out in paragraphs 72 through 80 of the Tunis Agenda.  These summits were valuable not only for formal outputs but equally for providing a broad framework for future Internet Governance efforts, including a comment terminology, a broad understanding of multistakeholder processes and their associated expectations, as well as some insight into the expectations of stakeholders from across all the stakeholder groups.

Another way to say this, it was the start of a global community.  So what makes the IGF special?  It's unique in that it was convened by the UN Secretary‑General to be an open, multistakeholder Forum bringing all stakeholders together as equals.  Its UN mandate gives it convening power and the authority to serve as a neutral space for all stakeholders.  The IGF has its administrative home in the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, or UNDESA, and because of the multistakeholder nature of the IGF, their contributions may not always be obvious but their support is crucial.  The IGF, and this is important and central to its success, is organized as a multistakeholder entity, relying on processes and principles, fundamental to successful multistakeholder processes.

The IGF's DNA, its value, its principles, are all based on that of open, transparent, inclusive and multistakeholder processes.  Many of these had long been practiced in many of the Internet organizations but not so much in some of the other stakeholder groups.  The multistakeholder nature of the IGF coupled with the fact that it is convened by the UN gives us something of a hybrid institution and this occasionally requires flexibility and understanding from all parties, as we work to merge differing working modalities, expectations, and processes.

How is the IGF supported?  After WSIS 2, a small Secretariat was set up in Geneva to support the IGF.  They do a tremendous job with, it has to be said, far too few resources.  The UN Secretary‑General also appointed a group of advisers representing all stakeholder groups to assist him in convening the IGF.  This group of advisers is called the IGF Multistakeholder Advisory Group or IGF MAG.  The MAG is made up of 55 members with half coming from Governments and the other half split equally across the other three stakeholder communities, that being the private sector, Civil Society, and the technical community.

Approximately 1/3 of the MAG turns over each year allowing new participation opportunities.  The UN Secretary‑General also appoints the Chair of the MAG, in what I believe is a clear sign of the growing support for the multistakeholder model, I'm honored to have been appointed earlier this year as the MAG Chair.  And for the first time in 10 years, the MAG Chair is not only female, but comes not from a Government, but from one of the other stakeholder groups, the so‑called technical community.  As some of you may not be familiar with this grouping the technical community includes enter Al ‑‑ those organizations responsible for managing or coordinating much of the infrastructure such as the IETF or The Internet Society, ISOC, Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN, the Internet architecture Board, IAB and the five Regional Internet Registries.  It also includes organizations such as IEEE, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.  So looking to the IGF's trajectory, the IGF was established to provide a multistakeholder platform to facilitate discussion of Public Policy issues related to Internet Governance.  Initially the IGF was essentially an annual Forum but it quickly became evident in order to have more impact, it was necessary to continue work between meetings and so over the years, an intersessional work program involved.  It's important to point out the IGF is an extra budgetary project of the UN, meaning that the preparation of this Forum and support to the year round intersessional work relies on voluntary contributions on donations and not UN member fees.  This can sometimes be a limiting factor on what the IGF can achieve.

Turning to this year's IGF, in recognition of the very important goals set out in the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development and the fact over 50% of the world's population does not yet have access to the Internet, the theme of this year's IGF, Enabling Inclusive and Sustainable Growth was quite easy for the MAG to agree on.  As we start the second decade of the IGF, the IGF community recognizes the important contribution the Internet makes in promoting social inclusion and economic growth and looks forward to accelerating developments in these areas, in particular, we are very happy to see the increased appreciation for and support of multistakeholder processes, and these now reach well beyond Internet Governance matters.

As an example, the 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development has embraced many components of multistakeholderism in their activities, and they join a number of other UN agencies as well as many policy activities nationally, regionally and globally in doing so.

Excuse me.

It's becoming increasingly clear in our hyperconnected world we need to engage all stakeholders in order to make maximum progress on some truly complex issues and this need is not at all limited to Internet Governance issues.

Another of the IGF's key focuses is on deepening engagement specifically in the developing world.  Again with over 50% if the world not yet connected to the Internet, there is still so very much work to be done.

So some innovations in this IGF include a strengthened and dedicated track for IGF newcomers, improved capacity building opportunities, more opportunities for young people to engage, pilots for new session formats to allow for late‑breaking topics, and importantly, enhanced online participation capabilities.

In addition to the innovations above, the MAG and the IGF community are very focused on advancing all IGF intersessional activities.  These community intersessional activities such as best practice Forums, policy options for connecting and enabling the next billions and Dynamic Coalitions are delivering concrete outcomes that will help bring more people online and into the Internet Governance discussions.

All the community intersessional activities offer unique global multistakeholder platforms for substantive online collaboration, on a wide array of Internet Governance themes and issues.  This community work will be featured far more than ever before at an IGF, and open for further consultation at this year's meeting.

By way of example, this year there are 4 best practice forums or BPFs covering gender and access, Internet exchange points, IPv6 and cybersecurity and there are 16 Dynamic Coalitions covering such things as the Internet of Things, connecting the unconnected, blotching technologies and accountability to name a few.  There's phase 2 of the IGF community's major policy initiative called policy options for connecting and enabling the next billions.

This is focused on developing the policy options from phase 1, which focused on the creation of enabling environments, to emphasize local and Regional specificities in order to better support their uptake.

One of the bigger success stories across the IGF community is that of the National and Regional IGF initiatives, or NRIs.  The NRIs are organic multistakeholder entities.  The number of NRIs has nearly doubled in the last year, from 42 to an expected 78 by the end of this week.  And they are contributing significantly to the advancement of many Internet Governance discussions locally and globally.

NRIs are a testament to the success of the global IGF and the multistakeholder model.  In combination with the intersessional activities above they're critical to advancing the work of the IGF, as their efforts are year‑round, and can have a more direct impact at the local level.  Many NRIs will be attendance here this week and active in showcasing their work.  There are main sessions dedicated to all the intersessional activities and we hope you're able to participate or stop by the booths in the village for more information.

The 11th IGF is a very significant presence for Civil Society as Victor mentioned.  Nearly 50% of attendees are also fairly well represented at 20% of the registrations.  Private sector at 17% and the technical community at 14% comprise the rest.  There are numerous international organizations here, and deepening collaboration with them is central to maximizing progress and also another area, where we are focusing.

Victor, in the information you sent for this session you asked us to reflect on the importance of the Internet, and its governance as a powerful tool to promote social inclusion and economic growth.  There's so much to learn at and from the IGFIGF provides a place to listen and learn, it is about gaining and sharing knowledge, about making contacts and learning about different approaches, as this is how we can make long‑term more sustainable progress on the issues we face.  In my past roles I have seen firsthand how much of an impact thing IGF had on Internet Governance and development in all countries developed and developing, with this introduction I hope I at least whet your appetite to learn more and participate more deeply in the IGF and its community activities.  There is a wealth of knowledge embedded in all these sessions, and in all the materials on the IGF web site.

Which includes materials from every one of the 11 IGFs held to date and all of the intersessional activities, so thank you very much for this opportunity to speak today.

[ Applause ]

>> ENRIQUE ZAPATA:  Thank you very much, Lynn, for your words.

In order to move on with our agenda, allow me to introduce someone who doesn't need an introduction.  Vint Cerf is well known as one of the Fathers of the Internet for his participation in the design of this IP prodigals and the architecture itself.  He's Vice‑Chair and Chief Internet Evangelist of Google, and he contributes to the development and standardization policies of the Internet globally.  Join me in welcoming Vint Cerf.

[ Applause ]

>> V. CERF:  Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.  I apologize.

[ Applause ]

Thank you.  I would like to spend a little time with you explaining that we still have a great deal of work to do to make the Internet what we all hope it can be.  So let me ask if we can put the slides up, please.

There they are.  Let me begin ‑‑ this is not working.  Hello, hello.  Do I have control over your computer or not?  There we go.

This is the beginning of the Internet.  It's actually something called the ARPANET.  It stood for the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.  It was sponsored by the American Defense Department.  They were trying to figure out how to get computer science departments to share their computing resources while they were doing research in the late 1960s in artificial intelligence and computer science.

And everybody at the dozen universities who were part of this program kept saying:  You have to buy us a new world‑class computer every year so we can do world‑class research.  And even the Defense Department concluded it couldn't afford to do that for a dozen universities, so, they said, we're going to build a network, and you're going to have to share.  Everybody hated that idea, but the Defense Department said:  We're building the network anyway, so they started at UCLA with the first node in Los Angeles and they added three more nodes over the course of the few months so this is the ARPANET at the end of 1969, the beginning of 1970, many decades ago.  I was a graduate student at UCLA and I wrote the software that connected the Sigma 7 commuter to the first node of the ARPANET.

This worked very well and expanded very rapidly, it extended all the way into Europe, in fact, by 1973.  And at this point, I was at Stanford University, beginning to do research on computer networking, and my colleague, Robert Kahn, who helped to define this system, had moved to the Defense Department at ARPA and was beginning to look at how to use computers in command and control for the Defense Department.  We began the design of the Internet in 1973.  The first paper was published in 1974, if I can have the next slide.

Why does this not seem to want to work?  There we go.  What you're seeing is the very first test of three different packet switch networks all running at the same time.  Over on the far left was a mobile packet radio network.  You're using mobile phones today and you think nothing of driving around at 60 or 70 miles an hour and communicating, this was a big deal in the 1970s.  The packet switched radios were about a cubic foot.  They cost $50,000.  We required a big van in order to move them around but we were testing mobile packet switching in the mid‑1970s, including packetized voice, and video communication in the mid 1970s.  We couldn't do very much of it but we were at least testing the concept.  So I want you to understand what you do today with video Conferencing and mobile voice and everything else was nascent in the network 40 years ago, just not very much of it.  We've come a long way.

Oops, could we go back please?  Thank you.

The middle there, looking like it's being swallowed up, was a packet satellite network that connected the eastern part of the United States with the Western part of Europe.  That was to emulate what it would be like to have ships at sea communicating with each other through satellite, and then the big thing it looks like it's an amoeba that's swallowing everybody is the ARPANET stretching from the United States all the way to Europe so this was a very important milestone almost 40 years ago demonstrating that the TCP/IP protocols would support this very, very flexible Communication Technology which has led today to all of the applications that you see.

Now we go to the next slide.  This is a picture of something called the National Science Foundation network.  It was sponsored by the American National Science Foundation after the original Defense Department ARPANET was built.  It wanted to, NSF, wanted to connect 3,000 research universities around the United States and they invested in building another piece of the Internet.  Other departments of the U.S. Government, the Department of Energy and NASA, also invested in building additional pieces of the Internet, and by this time ‑‑ we're talking about the mid 1980 ‑‑ other parts of the world, including Europe and elsewhere, were beginning to build their pieces of the Internet, as well.  So by the mid‑1980s we're starting to see a significant expansion of the network thanks to Government support.  By the late 1980s, we're starting to see commercial Internet services, three of them started in 1989 in the United States, for example.

So if we could go to the next slide now.  This is what the Internet looks like today.  It's a big gigantic very colorful environment.  The purpose for showing this picture though is to emphasize that there are hundreds of thousands of networks that are in operation today all around the world that are bound together by a common suite of protocols, the TCP/IP protocol suite.  Every one of those networks is operated independent of the others.  The people make their own decisions about what equipment to use, what software to use, who to connect to, and under what conditions.

This is a grand collaboration of hundreds of thousands of networks operating around the world.  And of course, the only reason it works is that they've all decided to use the common set of protocols to communicate.  So this is the world that you and I live in today.

So what I really want to emphasize to you is that what has been important in the recent history, the last 20 years or so, has been this notion of multiple stakeholders coming together, analyzing problems, and coming to recommendations for policy‑making.  And that's what the Internet Governance Forum is about.  Lynn St. Amour mentioned the number of participants especially on the technical side that are part of this multistakeholder environment but the private sector, the commercial Sector, Government, and Civil Society are all equally important parts of this multistakeholder operation.  And it's vital that we recognize that all those points of view are essential to understanding what policies will be the most beneficial for all of us who depend on the Internet and wish to expand its functional utility.

I want to overemphasize, if I can, the second bullet up there:  Safety, security, privacy, reliability, and interoperability, one network.  And finally, freedom of access and expression.  These are fundamental, desirable properties of what the Internet should deliver.  It's the sort of thing that we should all care about and seek to accomplish, and I want to emphasize more than anything safety.

This has become an environment which is not as safe as we would like it to be.  And we have to do something about that.  Some of the solutions are technical.  Some of them may be legal.  In some cases, we need law enforcement to help.  Some of them may be policy‑based for the private sector.  Some of them may be societal norms that you and I adopt about behavior, what's acceptable behavior in the Internet environment.

It gets even more complicated when we start talking about the Internet of Things, devices filled with software.  What if the software doesn't work properly?  What if it's not safe?  So of the very many items that I put up there, safety is a very important but not the only one.  I want to emphasize how broad is the agenda that the Internet Governance Forum has to address.

I want to also strongly recommend that we look at this as a transnational problem.  When the Internet was designed in 1973, it was deliberately designed without any reference to National jurisdictions.  It was designed to be a global collection of connected networks.  The pieces of any particular network could have been anywhere in the world, so the architecture and the addressing were designed from the toplogical point of view.  The packets of the Internet don't notice when they've crossed national boundaries, and this was a deliberate design decision.  The consequence of this is that the acts that we undertake on the network can have impact anywhere in the world.  The good side about this is, of course, it means we can conduct business, in theory, anywhere that the Internet can touch.  It means that we have global markets.  It means that we have an opportunity to discover information of use to us no matter where it comes from and so this transnational character is a powerful component of the Internet's design but at the same time, it means that if there is a victim in one place, and a perpetrator in another, they could cross National boundaries.  Harms can take place, and we need to cope with this.  We can't cope with these problems purely domestically, purely locally.  We have to cooperate on a global scale in order to deal with the potential abuses, distribution of malware or bullying or other kinds of abuse so beer going to need legal regimes that deal with those problems.

On the positive side, we also need to create an environment where electronic commerce is well supported.  That may mean common agreement about the power and strength of a digital signature.  The ability to strongly authenticate parties who are transacting.  If we can do that, we can make a much more rich commercial environment in this global network setting.

I would be remiss if I didn't point out that the Internet is not just about computers talking to each other.  It's about you and me talking to each other.  It's about our interactions.  It's about our sharing of information with each other.  In the early 1990s, when Tim Berners‑Lee introduced the World Wide Web, to be honest with you, nobody noticed.  It was about 1991, he released his first implementations around Christmastime in 1991, and I don't think too many people were aware of it but not very much later, two researchers at the National Center for Supercomputer Applications, Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina had the vocal browser.  This was the first graphical interface to the World Wide Web.  It got everyone's attention.  Millions of copies were downloaded.  Because it made the Internet look like a magazine with imagery and formatted text, it also allowed people to create and share information.  You could make Web pages.

How did we get Web Masters?  This was fascinating.  Every browser that was made allowed you to see what the hyper text markup line, which was the created and interesting Web page.  It meant that we all learned from each other.  We could all copy each other's Web pages, make changes to see what would happen.  This was open source, basically so we all learned how to make our own Web pages from each other.  We escalated the rate at which we could be creative because we were sharing in such an open way.  So there was an avalanche of content that flowed into the network from people who just wanted to share what they knew, hoping that their information would be valuable to someone else.

They weren't looking to be paid for this.  They were looking for the satisfaction that sharing of information was useful.  That's a very powerful motivation, and it continues today, and a great deal of the information on the Internet is there freely because people want to share it.  So this was a very powerful theme.  We should be paying more attention to the people side of the Internet, because in the end, that's where all the benefit will lie.  We need the network to be affordable.  We need it to be accessible in two senses.  One, we have to be able to get to it, physically.  And we also need to deal with people who may have disabilities who have trouble with vision or hearing or motor movements.  We need to make all of the system accessible to those people, too.  No one should be left out.

And, of course, it's very important to have local content that's useful.  And so for those of you who are thinking, when you go back to your respective homes, about useful information, think about what is missing from the Internet's information that you think would be locally valuable, and see if you can find a way to make that happen.  People might find it interesting to have a map of New York City.  But if you're trying to find your way around Jalisco, it's interesting, but it's not helpful.  What you need is the road system here.  And that's true everywhere around the world.  So local content is very important.

I think we also want very much to create an environment where competition is supported and valued in the private sector especially.  I want to remind you that from the technical point of view, the Internet was architected to encourage competition by creating standards, and by creating opportunities for multiple parties to bring up and operate a piece of the Internet, or to put up a new application.  There's something we call permissionless innovation.  That means you don't have to get permission from someone in order to build a new product or service on the net.  You just bring it up.  When they started Google in 1998, they were graduate students at Stanford University.  They did not have to get permission from every Internet Service Provider in the world before they brought up their new search engine.  They just put it up and let people use it and of course you know over the course of the last 19 years or so, it's become a very, very successful business.  That's an important property.  Give people the freedom and opportunity to invent new products and services and allow them to put them up on the net and compete with each other for the attention of the users.

It's also very important to recognize this medium can be helpful from the educational point of view.  We should be encouraging more content to help people learn new skills, new capabilities, so that they can make a living, and so education is another important part of the Internet space, and you can imagine other scenarios which I won't take time to detail in health care, network facilitated work and so on.

This global system has the potential to affect our lives every single day and we hope in a positive way, and as I say, we still have to deal with some of the other side effects, harmful potential side effects.  There is a global connection initiative one of them started by the American State Department.  The World Bank was a participant, IEEE is a participant.  There are many such initiatives to increase connectivity of the Internet around the world to make it available in places where it has not yet been built. 

There are some pretty interesting technical attempts to make the Internet more accessible.  One of them at my company Google is called Loon, because it's a little loony.  We're putting balloons up at 60,000 feet.  The cycle, they stay in one latitude and cycle around the world giving access to Internet from 60,000 feet.  It's kind of like a very low flying satellite.  The idea is to bring access to places that would be very hard to wire with optical fiber, for example.  That's just one example.  There are proposals from Elon Musk for example to put up 4,425 small satellites in lower earth orbit in order to increase access to the system and of course that is accompanied by all the work going on with mobile telephony, where we have LTE and 5G coming and 4G and 3G already in existence, where base stations are being put up on towers all around the world.  That's probably the fastest growing way in which most people get access to the Internet today is through their Smartphones.  And so there are many different opportunities here to increase access.

And of course, it's very important that all of this be sustainable, because if you put up a service and it only works for a little while because it's subsidized you're not going to have a service that people can rely on so sustainability is a very important point.  Could I have the next slide?  That's good.

I have to tell you that the technologists are not done, either.  There are standards still to be made that are still in the pipeline from various organizations, like the Internet Engineering Task Force, the World Wide Web Consortium, W3C, IEEE, ITU's telecommunication standards and others as you see up here.  What we are very concerned about is to create standards so that first we will achieve interoperability, and second, we create opportunities for competition, because that's what interoperability does:  It lets multiple parties create software and hardware that interworks so that you and I, as consumers, can have choice of what software and hardware to use.

There's a big issue here about the Internet of Things, where we take devices, we put software into them, and then we expect those devices to operate reliably over a long period of time.  If it's the heating and ventilation and air conditioning of your house, for example, or it's the security system, or it's the entertainment system, we typically buy these things and expect them to run for a while.  Well, we all know that when you write software, you often make mistakes.  We haven't figured out a way to guarantee that no one has bugs in the software.

The consequence of that is that software needs to be updated.  I want you to think for just a moment, imagine that you're living in a house with 100 devices in it that have software.  And some of them need new software to fix bugs, or to create new capability.  The question is:  How will we know that the software that's being loaded is coming from a safe place?  How do we know that it's coming from the appropriate source?  How do we know that it isn't malicious software that somebody is trying to get us to put in so that our Web cameras can be taken over, as they were recently in a huge attack against Dyn Company.  It looked like there was something on the order of 500 gigabits per second of traffic being aimed at a particular target from Web cameras that had been overtaken, because the camera software had very simple access controls.  It had a built‑in, burned‑in user name and password, or it had no control at all.  The bad guys got access to those cameras and sent megabit streams aggregated towards the target.

We have to fix these kinds of problems.  We have to inhibit them somehow.  And there are ways to do that, in particular end to end authentication cryptographically strong end to end authentication gives you the opportunity for a device to say I'm not accepting a piece of software unless it comes from a place I know about and I've been told I can accept that.  That's also important for you and for me to authenticate ourselves when we're in the middle of transactions where we want to make sure we know exactly who are we transacting with?  And will our all agreements have legal support?

So we need to have that technology in hand and widely distributed.  Confidentiality and privacy are major issues for every one of us, and we need technologies and operating principles that will preserve our privacy and confidentiality when it's needed.  I don't need to make up all the examples where you want some privacy, health care being an obvious one, financial transactions, another.

Those of you who are in this game know that we ran out of the IP version 4 address space in 2011.  ICANN had no more address space to give to the Regional Internet Registries.  Of course, around early 1990s, the engineers realized we were going to run out of that 32 bit address space and developed the 128‑bit IPv6 address space.  We're very, very far behind where we need to be deploying and operating IP version 6 in parallel with IP version 4.  We're probably on the order of 15% penetrated on a global basis.  In some places it's much more penetrant.  A lot of the mobile phone systems run V6, 70, 80, or 90% of them.  So it's an uneven distribution right now but we clearly need this especially for the Internet of Things the where there are predicted to be billions of such devices that need to be addressed in order to interact so IPv6 is really important.

I have a long rant which I won't bore you with about preserving digital content over hundreds of years.  The reason I'm so concerned about this is every one of you with your mobile phone takes pictures every day and you're assuming because they're bits, that somehow they'll last forever because bits don't wear out.  The trouble is, the bits are stored in a physical medium.  It could be a 5 1/4 floppy digs or maybe it's a CD ROM or a DVD or maybe it's a Blu‑ray, or maybe it's just one of the hard disk drives you plug into your computer.  The problem is even if the media are still available, the readers for them may no longer be available.  I live in Washington, D.C., area, I might have to go to the Smithsonian Institution in order to find an old computer that will read some of my old disks.  But there's another problem lurking and that's that software that creates images and documents, spreadsheets, and other kinds of things, software is needed in order to understand the format of that content.

What happens if 100 years from now, the software that created that object doesn't run anymore on the hardware and operating systems of the day?  So in the 22nd century, it's possible that none of the software that we use to create content, to create images and movies, is still running.  And if we can't interpret the complex files we've created, the information is lost.  The 22nd century may have no idea what the 21st century was like if they have no access to our emails, our blogs, our Web pages, and all the other digital objects we've created.  There's some serious and hard technical, economic, and legal problems associated with preserving digital content over long periods of time.

There's another little problem with the World Wide Web.  We all know about Domain Names.  Domain Names are very essential to the uniform record locators of the World Wide Web.  The problem is, Domain Names themselves are not necessarily stable.  If you fail to pay your annual rent on your Domain Name, and it expires and you no longer have access to it, all the URLs that pointed to the content that associated with that Domain Name may no longer resolve, in which case the information is inaccessible.  Or worse, someone else gets the Domain Name and puts content up that you didn't intend and that's where the URLs resolve to, that could be awkward, as well.

We need stable, long‑term identifiers and this takes some serious thought.  It's not what we currently have.  The business models of sustaining the Domain Name System induce this instability, and we need to fix that.

And of course, I'd be remiss if I didn't say something about the need for broadband access, optical fiber and wireless are the two primary ways by which Internet will be reached in the near future.

There's still more unfinished business.  I've already talked a lot about the Internet of Things so I'll try to save some time by just referring you again to that list of important properties that we want these devices with their software to have, if we're going to rely on them day in and day out.  But now we face another big problem:  There is a great deal of misinformation, deliberate or simply ignorance, on the network.  It's critical thinking that helps us distinguish the misinformation from the good information, but not everyone is willing to put forth the effort to think about where the information came from, what is the source?  How was it analyzed?  You know, how does it compare to other sources of information that we might have?  If we're going to teach our children anything in this online world, it is think about where the information came from, what you're being told, what you are seeing.  Try to distinguish good information from not so good information.  We need to work really hard on that.

We need to create, I would say, norms for the production and distribution of information that speak to its quality.  People will still put bad information up on the net.  It's just that you and I need to be able to detect that as bad or false or misrepresentation.  And separate our reaction to it.  There is ‑‑ so here is ‑‑ this is a major issue for us in this 21st century, which we will be dealing with in the IGF and elsewhere, probably very much this week.  There's also this problem of bad software, buggy software and malware that's floating around on the net.  All I can say is that this is a very big problem, because we haven't figured out how to write code that has no bugs in it.  For the last 70 years, the computers have been around, we have been creating code and it seems to all have bugs.  So fixing that problem is two pots to it.  One of them is trying to create environments where when you write code it's less likely it will have bugs.  That calls for pretty sophisticated software implementation environment.  And on the other side, we have to be prepared to update software, because if it has bugs, we need to fix it.

You can worry a little bit about artificial intelligence, self‑driving cars and self‑flying drones and robotics and things like that.  Now we're getting into software that is making decisions that we're not in the loop with.  And how do we make sure that that software is safe to use?  And safe to rely upon?  That's a big challenge for us.

I have begun not for the first time to think about ethics in software based systems in general.  I think that programmers ‑‑ I used to be one ‑‑ made a living that way ‑‑ are responsible for the software that they write.  And if it doesn't work, I think they have a responsibility to fix it.  I think they have a responsibility to try hard not to create software that has bugs and mistakes in it, that could lead to serious consequences.  So there's an ethical issue here.  We need to infuse that ethic into the programmers and the companies that employ them, so that there is a social norm that says:  If you're going to write software you need to think about the consequences of that software's operation and protect people from the potential negative ones and on fop of all that I think digital literacy in general is important.  We teach our children to look both ways when they cross the street to avoid getting run over by a negligent driver.  We need to teach them to look both ways in the network, to pay attention to how to be safe in this environment.

I think I have one more slide here.  Could you go to the next slide, please?  There we are.  This is my last slide.  I just wanted to tell you, and many of you know I've been working at the jet propulsion laboratory since 1998, on the extension of the Internet across the solar system.  And before you decide that I've gone crazy, in fact, it's already in operation.  We have new software.  It's not TCP/IP.  Without going into a lot of detail it turns out that didn't work over interplanetary distances where the round‑trip times are 40 minutes to hours.  TCP flow control doesn't work very well with that kind of delay in the system to say nothing of the fact it's a disrupted environment.  Planets are rotating and we haven't figured out how to stop that.  So if you're talking to something on the surface of a planet and it's rotating eventually you can't talk to it till it comes around so we've developed a new suite of protocols for interplanetary communication.  We have it operating on Mars in the surface and operators.  It's operating in the International Space Station and on earth.  We're experimenting with that software now for mobiles and other kinds of applications.  It's standardized by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Systems.  It's freely available to any space faring nation that wishes to use these protocols.  What we're hoping frankly is if these protocols are adopted as part of the norm, then each new spacecraft that goes off to do some scientific expedition, when it finishes, could be repurposed as a node of an interplanetary backbone and so over the decades of the remainder of this 21st century, we can build an interplanetary network out of the equipment that we send out there to explore our nearby solar system.

And so at last, the Internet has left the planet, and someday perhaps we will, too, especially if Elon Musk has his way.  So I thank you very much for allowing me this time here.  I'm looking forward to the rest of the week interacting with as many of you as I can.  Please keep in mind all of these issues.  It is unfinished work.  And you have a responsibility to help get to the goal.  Thank you very much.

[ Applause ]

>> ENRIQUE ZAPATA:  Thank you, Dr. Cerf, for being here with us today.  We are truly honored to have you here in Mexico.  And next, I have the pleasure of introducing somebody who doesn't need an introduction, as well, Alejandra Lagunes, the National Coordinator of Digital Strategy in Mexico.  She has a degree in communication and over 20 years of experience in these matters of communication, she's been a pioneer in this sector of the country, and is leader when it comes to strategies in the Mexican Government.  Please welcome Alejandra Lagunes.

>> ALEJANDRA LAGUNES:  Thank you, Enrique.  Good morning, all.  Welcome to Mexico.  Welcome to Jalisco.  Thank you for being here with us today in this 11th session of the Internet Governance Forum, a space that all of us, as peers, can ‑‑ in which we can discuss on matters of the Internet, so that we will have a free space, a neutral, safe, open, resilient and decentralized space.  This event represents a great opportunity also for having dialogue regarding how the Internet Governance contributes to the Sustainable Development Goals.  The importance on these matters isn't minor.  Internet offers great opportunities and benefits, but as a humanity, we face today new and complex challenges.

As the poet Mario Benedetti says, when we thought we had all the answers, suddenly all the questions changed and it is because in the last few years we have been witnesses to great changes that have us question new matters on economy, health, education, the environment, and of course, our Governments.  It is true:  Today we can take advantage of the Internet to come close to contents that a few years ago we didn't have access to.

90% of the information available today was generated in the last two years.  However, in the world, there are still 103 million young people that don't have a minimum level of literacy.  60% of them are women.

Internet allows us to have a plural vision of reality, demand accountability of our Governments, question democracies.  Innovation and technological progress are exponential in all industries.  However, more than 835 million people still live in extreme poverty.  12% of the world population.

Internet offers us implicit opportunities regarding knowledge and participation.  However, the global economic expectations aren't promising.  According to a McKenzie study if the economic growth continues with its current trends in the next decade, over 70% of homes will have a reduced income, will have reduced their incomes.  In the last 10 years, the gap between the richest and poorest has increased by 11% in developing countries, and in developed countries, the scenario isn't much better.

We live in a world with many realities.  Faces of humanity of contrast as it is here in Mexico, this great country, in which we don't have one Mexico.  We have many Mexicos.  The voices of farmers, of professors, entrepreneurs, students, those who migrate to other countries seeking other opportunities, mothers and fathers who seek better opportunities for their children.  I would like to share the story of three women who used technology to improve their health and that of their children.

[ Video ]

Do we have audio?  Can we play it again so we can listen to the video, please?

The video that is going to be played is one of the largest social programs in Mexico, Prospera.  And with the use of technology we created Prospera Digital.  Now, we'll watch a testimonial video of three women narrating their experience with Prospera.

Digital Prospera.

[ Video ]

Prospera Digital was one of the Millennium Development Goals we managed to fulfill as a company.  Prospera Digital aims to get to 700 million women who were part of the Prospera programs and it aims to use mobile phones, pregnant women with 2‑year‑old babies receive timely and customized information on their mobile phones, and the Government obviously improves its capacity to respond.  This project taught us by means of the Internet in a coordinated fashion with a cross‑cutting approach the Government can offer the tools that are needed to have a positive impact in the lives of people.  And that is to change people's lives, to fill the inequality gap, to have a level footing for the same opportunities.  This is what the Internet can do.

Three years ago, we decided to implement an Action Plan that would place the citizen at the core of all of our actions that would make our Government more open and more efficient.  This Action Plan was titled:  The National Digital Strategy, and it has two core goals.  First of all, to use technology to transform our Government, and secondly, to make the Government a platform that can trigger innovation and development.  In order to make the Government in an innovative and development platform one of the examples that I can share is that hundreds of institutions are placing their information in open data formats.

The purpose is to have all Government information available to anyone and that this information is transformed into useful tools.  I would like to invite Ania Calderone to share with us from her expertise, what does it mean to witness this incredible transformation.

>> ANIA CALDERONE:  Good morning, everyone.  Many people say that we cannot solve what we can't see, which is hard for me to understand because today we are witness of a global transformation enabled by the Internet, and fed by a generation of ubiquitous data from Government operations and administrative records.  Up to all the data that citizens create through social networks and financial transactions.  Data stem out from what citizens do in the world and how they interact with the world because they describe a world and we can understand our world better through data, provided we can make use of them.  That is why the National strategy of the Government of Mexico uses open data.  It fosters the use of open data, data that can use to enable their use for everybody's benefit.

As you can see, the open data policy tries to build a platform upon which everybody can generate knowledge and share new ideas with a better understanding of the challenges that we face today, but we know today that having data up does not translate automatically into a better life.  It's people.  It's the people behind data who are advocating for the changes that truly matters, as we just heard.  What matters is a human face of the interpret, as Vint Cerf said so this has to do with the social claims in our country and this is our reality in Mexico because different sectors are using more than 16,000 pieces of data that have been published to create innovative solutions and I'll give you some examples.  Open data in Mexico are used to build a more resilient society.  We witnessed last year during the hurricane by having shelter information and critical infrastructure information that in 72 hours summoned the whole world and captured 14,000 kilometers of roads in the shore line and that informed the decisions made of the Emergency Preparedness Committee, and it made it possible to have multistakeholders making decisions together and preventing damage from further natural phenomenon.  On the other hand, open data create change for Mexican families, with a population of more than 52 million records of more than 2,000 points of sale in the whole country, a company created an app so that families can compare prices between companies and save money when they buy stationery for their children or buying presents for the holidays and the last example which in my opinion is very relevant for today's activities, because you can in realtime make queries about the quality of air here in Guadalajara as well as in Mexico city available in Google due to open data on the pollutant records, as well as more than 700 monitoring stations throughout the country.

So this data allows us to protect the environment and also to be cautious in terms of how we take care of ourselves.  This is how I would like to wrap up my remarks, and open data is a public asset, and we're using open data to change the way we interact with the environment, to innovate our present and innovate into our future but that means changing how we address policy making and this entails, as well, how we use governance.  We need to be open.  We need the type of governance that recognizes that citizens are at the core and that is what open data can offer.  Open data related to infrastructure for example in terms of the use of Internet should help us to build a collective mindset of the world that we want to live in.  Thank you very much.

>> ALEJANDRA LAGUNES:  Thank you very much, Ania.  These are open data in action.  Thank you, Ania, and your team for the tireless efforts that from day one you have invested from day one when we envisioned the National digital strategy and we knew that data was going to be a landmark.  Policies that are evidence based and in tight collaboration with every sector, with the Academia, with organized Civil Society and with different industrial sectors.

The open data policy was the first one in Mexico that was implemented in collaboration and using the Internet, also a presidential decree was published that mandates the federal government to open up their archives and their databases and we have thousands of people as well committed to change our culture.  Mexico in just two years' time has become the top country in the region from the Web Foundation open data barometer and the open data index by the OECD and I would like to use another example on how we have transformed our Government, one of the most ambitious projects which is gob.MX.  This is the digital Government project.  This is the result of team work, standardizing norms, interoperability, accessibility, digitization, security, identity, manhours, and many other items are purposes that citizens from one single point can have access to Government information, to Government processes, as well as a digital participation platform.

In order to give you more details, I'd like to invite Yolanda Martinez, who runs all the digital Government efforts in the country, and Jorge Sepulveda, part of the technology team from the President's Office, and also the lead of the infrastructure team of gob.MX.  They lead tens of people in their staff, and every day they live in their own skin what it means to transform a Government.  Thank you for allowing us to participate in this transformation.

>> YOLANDA MARTINEZ:  Good morning, everyone.  Gob.MX is the digital access to Government services, Government processes, and a platform for citizens' at this time patience.  The single window is an initiative that is rethinking the way the Government interacts with its citizens and it innovates every day, streamlines processes, makes lives easier, saves time and money to every single individual that can ask a service from the Government through the use of Internet and other technologies.  Gob.MX uses all of these resources to democratize the access to the most used public services with a 24/7 availability, 365 days a year, from any device, and from wherever you can get Internet access.  This is how powerful Internet is.  Gob.MX is a new model of digital access that is revamping how we render Government services to our citizens and this means we have managed to unify and standardize our communication strategies digitally from different Government agencies to generate a platform for citizens to participate and the definition of digital standards for every Government agencies to promote interoperability so that the Government stops asking citizens for information if the Government already has that information, to have a user‑friendly home page available 24/7, and we're no longer asking citizens to go from one Government office to another to share information.

We want to unify what the Government does in one single point.  Gob.MX has very important benefits for the population as a whole.  It's an intuitive design based on the State of the art user experience standards, saving time, saving resources, but specifically gob.MX allows us not to leave anyone behind from the benefits and the use of technology and the Internet.

We have reduced response times to carry from one single point, processes online.  We have priortized the most impactful one in order to fulfill the Sustainable Development Goals.  In a context that is featured by social inequality, gob.MX is a tool that results in inclusion.  It democratizes public services, generates better life opportunities for individuals by enabling universal access to the most impactful services for their lives.

Gob.MX is the project that rethinks how we interact with society, innovates every day, streamlines processes, saves time and money.  Some of the statistical figures that we can see on the screen, one of the most important ones is that 81% of citizens show high customer satisfaction when they make processes with the Government.  In three years' time, more than 94 services have been provided online.  And more than 250 million annual transactions and more than 2,000 digital processes.

>> My name is Mariana, and I'm studying junior high.  I like animals and I love to take care of them.  I want to be the best vet in the country.  My dream is to study abroad, and be ready to own one day a huge vet shop so I can take care of all animals.

Find what you're looking for.  As easy as that.

>> YOLANDA MARTINEZ:  As easy as that, as Mariana said, at gob.MX we can find a tool to fulfill our dreams.  Thank you very much.

[ Applause ]

>> ALEJANDRA LAGUNES:  Thank you very much, Yolanda.  Thank you very much, Jorge.  This has been a huge endeavor, but your team's engagement, and the engagement of hundreds of people in the Government has made the results very impressive.  Today at gob.MX we have more than 4,000 processes online that receive 1 million queries every day.  We have carried out more than 258 million times, 258 million times, that citizens don't have to physically visit a window.  We are very proud to say that Mexico is the leader in Latin America and the Caribbean in participation and services online according to the United Nations e‑Government survey.

Also, the proportion of individuals using the Internet to interact with the Government grew by 17 times, and it moved from 1.2% to 20.8% in 2015.  But we know that what is the use of having a digitized and modern Government if we don't have two key elements first.  The first one, connectivity.  And the second one, inclusion and digital skills.  In 2013, the telecommunication reform was implemented.  Due to this reform Internet access became a right to the Constitution.  Mexico is the 8th country in the world of having this right in the Constitution.  This reform also triggered competition and managed to bring prizes more than 20%.

Within the framework of this reform, the Government has managed to connect more than 100,000 public sites:  Hospitals, schools, health care clinics, and Government buildings.  It is evidently the breakthrough we managed to achieve.  Internet users in Mexico grew by 70% in the four years.  For the first time in our country, we are over the connectivity figure, and we have covered more than 50% of the population and we have more than 70 million people connected and if we address the second element, inclusion and digital skills, we're in the process of transforming the educational model in the country.  This is a transformation that has already started with the educational reform, but also it tags along a new change into the model and that is how we introduce more technology into schools.  We have created a special Government Department in charge of designing and giving follow‑up to the policy to incorporate technologies in the educational process.  We have defined a digital inclusion program that has four pillars training teachers, an online platform with thousands of educational equipment and connectivity monitoring and evaluation.

With this program we're trying to put at the service of students and teachers the technology so they can develop digital skills to be ‑‑ help them be more creative and more competitive in this century society.  We can say, then, that we have managed to fulfill our goals?  No, definitely no.  We're still far away.  This great victory would be the result of the values that we have to defend freedom of expression, universal access, security of information and privacy of information.  And probably going back to Mario Benedetti's thoughts, tomorrow we'll have new questions to address and we might not have the same answers but I dare to say that all of us who are present here, we believe in the transformational power of the Internet.  What should engage us vis‑a‑vis the challenges ahead?  I believe that by understanding our present and our future different with a different lens, to acknowledge the value of our diversity, we need to find the richness of differences instead of creating gaps.  As was said, we live in a hybrid connected world so being problems in any place means solving everyplace's problems.  We're engaged by the principles that defined us as a society:  Equity, respect, inclusion and justice.  These values also unite us so that the Internet helps us build a better reality.  Internet itself won't solve the problems we face today, that is, in our hands.  It depends on what we do with the Internet.  We have a great opportunity ahead of us to trigger more information, to use all the data on our hand to develop our own domestic market, to produce and consume our own digital products and services, we must be creative.  We need to be critical.  We have to hack bureaucrats.  We have to be better together than apart.  We have to turn our back to hate speech and show the face of inclusion.  We have to give legal certainty and at the same time we digitize our governments, we need to be better members of Government, but also better citizens.

A country that knows how to reinvent itself in an ever‑changing world has the future in its hands.  A future that I want for my daughters, to whom I devote this dream that starts to be a reality this day.  Thank you very much.

[ Applause ]

>> Thank you very much, Coordinator Lagunes.  Thank you for your remarks.  I'd like to welcome Kathy Brown.  President and CEO of The Internet Society and an authoritative voice in the development of standards and the Internet.  Join me in welcoming Mrs. Brown.

[ Applause ]

>> KATHY BROWN:  Good morning!  Good, good morning.  I am very truly delighted to be here in Guadalajara, Mexico, this morning, with all of you at IGF 2016.  I want to express our collective appreciation to our fabulous host, the Government of Mexico.  And especially to Victor and Alejandra, together with other friends across the Mexican Government and across the Internet Community here in Mexico, for the support and the very hard work of the past year to find this beautiful venue.  It is quite beautiful.  And to welcome us with such warmth to your wonderful country.  So thank you.

[ Applause ]

As Lynn pointed out, for 10 years, this wonderful Forum has been bringing stakeholders, users of the Internet, together in what I know I have called in the past a bazaar of ideas.  Even outside it's all set up so one can go from one booth to the other, from one tent to the other, to hear and to understand and to think about the innovative ideas that we all bring to the Table.  We moved from these innovative ideas to innovative solutions, as we have worked together over these years.  And we have really come to some ‑‑ we've come to grips with some best practices, as we think about the governance issues around this global, borderless Internet.  And I would say that we were quite successful and I want to congratulate this Assembly that we successfully concluded the UN 10 year WSIS review, where the Governments of the world ‑‑ let's remember this ‑‑ confirmed and endorsed the governance model that we have all worked so hard to establish and to implement.

We are multistakeholder.  That word has been vexing to so many.  What does it mean?  Well, it means that we are users, providers, technologists, activists, Governments, who come together to try to address the changing world we live in, in this Internet age.  We have now been entrusted with making the model work for the next 10 years.  That's a large, large task, given the challenges we face.

We know that 1/2 the world is still not connected, and Vint did a fabulous job, didn't he just, in giving us a course on the unfinished business.  I think that that unfinished business must become our work and we need to feel the urgency around some of this.  You know, my own passion for this Internet lies in its very architecture:  Global, open, inclusive, a tool for connection, communication, and collaboration.  But we know that the winds of change are blowing.  We know that there are challenges that lie before us and issues around the vulnerabilities of some of the technology, and issues around some of the uses of the Internet that have not been for the general good, but in some ways hurt people who want to use the Internet.

We, as an Internet Community, must face those issues that we broadly call "trust."  Do we have trust?  Is there trust in the use of the tool for the benefit of us all?  And how do we all want to start thinking about the governance issues of ourselves on the Internet?

So this idea of ethical behavior, this idea of ensuring that the good of the community is upheld, whale we hold onto those ideas of inclusiveness, of access, of everyone on the Internet everywhere.

As you know, it is our mission at ISOC to ensure that we do have this global, open, trusted Internet everywhere for everyone.  That's quite a sentence, and it calls upon us to look at each of these elements and ensure that we are working hard to make it part of our future.

Interestingly, over the last 10 years, this tool, this Internet tool, has finally been embraced by people who are thinking about the development issues for the whole of the world.  So the Sustainable Development Goals I find most useful in trying to understand where we, as a world global community, want to go in all of the human necessities:  Education, health care, poverty, the rights of women, the rights of minority people in all the various countries of the world.  It helps us have a roadmap to the work we need to do with respect to the Internet's influence and enabling of achieving those goals.

For the moment, I'd like to concentrate on Goal 9C:  Significantly increase access to information and Communication Technology, and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in the least developed countries by 2020.

Why is that goal so fundamental?  Because if we achieve this goal, that we have universal access in the Least Developed Countries, or the least developed places in all countries, we will have achieved it for everyone.  For surely if we connect the last one billion, we will have connected the 3 to 4 billion who have not yet achieved access to the Internet.

Behind you, you see some pictures of the work that ISOC and its development partners are doing in this region and around the world in developing community networks, in villages that are the most underserved, and in some cases underrepresented in the political arena.

Our partners, who will hold a roundtable I think later today or tomorrow ‑‑ and I should have really given you the date and time ‑‑ will talk about this development of community capacity, human capacity, technical capacity, and then using the technology for whatever it is the village wants to use it for.  You will see here some pictures of ‑‑ we'll start at the beginning so I can almost tell you where they are.

Here about 40 kilometers outside of Cancun where we have a beautiful program, schools, these fabulous children, the most well behaved children I've ever seen, who actually wait their turn to use a Raspberry, by the way, because we're not yet connected to the overall Internet, but are learning how to use the Internet functions for their own future.  You see our community in Tilonia, India, where again the community itself has built a wi‑fi network that is used by the women of the community in their manufacturing of solar ovens for their villages.  And where the children also line up to learn the Internet skills.

You will see a school for farmers in Sri Lanka, where the community Internet, the community network, allows those farmers to send their ‑‑ get the information and send their goods around the world.  And my favorite you will see is a sign that's put up on one of the walls that talks about the inspiration that people living in the community give to each other to serve each other in that community, so that they all achieve together.

It is quite moving, and it is quite part of the spirit of the Internet itself.  We believe that those villages and the experience in those villages provide for a policy framework for what we need to do to meet Goal 9C.  You see, because they can put up those small networks, but they need to be connected.  They need backhaul.  So let's get tactical.  One of those schools is but two miles from the main highway where you see the towers, the wireless towers, running down the side of the road, and any one of us who understands these networks knows that there is backhaul.  That's running right down that highway.  Why can't we get that school and that town connected?  Honestly, how much traffic is coming from a small, little village?

In Tolonia, not so many kilometers away, is a railroad line with fiber running right down it.  My point being, this backhaul issue shouldn't be as hard as we're making it.  Yes, we want to strive for every part of every country to have that kind of network that would reach in commercial terms everyplace else but until that happens, there are solutions.  There is a policy here about whether and how we want to connect those small villages.  In order to run that wi‑fi network there you need a spectrum license.  You need to have some spectrum to run a wireless network over.  Does that license have to be so big that our partners can't afford to get it?  Or can it be a small swath so it is affordable and they can take on the spectrum they need to do what they need to do?

What do we do for sustainability of the businesses that are being developed by the people in the village?  I can tell you now, and I hope you understand this yourselves and you can tell me better, that as we go around the world, it is clear to me that the business rules for the emerging Internet are not in place in many, many places, so that the things that are produced ‑‑ information, actual goods ‑‑ that can indeed make the whole of the village sustainable, have no rules about what to do about this.  How do I sell my scarves?  Can I put this information out to the entire world?  Can I sell the basket in Europe?  How do I ship it?  Are there taxes?

So we have to move a little bit further in our thinking from, yes, we have to provide the infrastructure, but then we need the business infrastructure to actually allow the businesses to go forward, and to have the whole of the village be financially sustained.

I'm hoping that ‑‑ no, I want to make one last point:  While we are doing this, we absolutely must do it better.  We must address the trust issue.  We must, as I think Vint laid out, address this security issue, because the security issue goes to the safety issue.  Am I safe online?  Can I do what I need to do?  Can I trust what's happened on the other end of the transmission I make?  Can I trust that something I say online will not be used for me to lose my liberty?

We have some issues, and we need, as we think about connecting the rest of the world, to face them, because 10 years into this great, great age, this Internet digital age, we understand that this is the existential issue of our Internet age, of our 21st Internet, that it is a safe Internet, and that wherever those technical vulnerabilities lie, we're working hard on them, and where the societal vulnerabilities lie, we have an answer for them.

It is time for us, as the Internet Community, to put some productive, concrete ideas on the table, and to start to be activists about them, to find the places where we get the normative behavior, whether it be community‑based, contractually based, and when and where necessary, Government‑based, so that the users of the Internet feel safe.

So this week, in the workshops we'll all attend, I hope we get serious about these two big ideas:  Access and safety.  Trust, security, access and that we together make some commitments about what we will do as a community to address these challenges.

Especially in wrapping up here, I want to call out our Chapters, our ISOC Chapters, some of which are here, some of which the leaders are depicted in some of these pictures, who lead so much of what is going on in the community, on the ground.

We have 134 Chapters now in 97 countries, I believe around the world, people who are working hard each and every day to create their own futures.

Finally, let me double down on this notion that the Internet is about the future.  It's always about tomorrow.  So I'm thrilled that the next generation of Internet leaders, 90 young activists from Mexico, from the region, and from around the world, are here at IGF 2016.  I see some of you out there.  You make me smile every time I see you.  They are being supported by the ISOC Ambassador Programme, but also by CGI, by the Government of Mexico, by NIC.MX and Microsoft, and Google and Microsoft and Verizon, so congratulations to the supporters and I'm looking forward to hearing from our Young Leaders to our future IGF Coordinators, I hope, and not so future.  I hope soon they will step up and take over for us crusty old folks.

By training these Young Leaders in areas such as Internet Governance, privacy, security, access, how to build the Internet, how to build networks, how to connect the world, we continue to create the next generation of the Internet itself.

So thank you very much for this kind invitation for me to speak, for The Internet Society to be here in this opening session on Day Zero.  Many, many, many thanks to our friends in Mexico for the warm welcome, and again, thank you for your hospitality.  I wish you all a very good IGF and I'll see you in the hallways.  Thank you.

[ Applause ]

>> ENRIQUE ZAPATA:  Thank you, Mrs. Brown, for her participation.  Everything you have done has been fundamental not only for this event but for the future of the governance of Internet.

To start with the last part of our session, I would like to share with you a video on behalf of the State of Jalisco.

[ Video ]

>> We are terribly sorry for this inconvenience.  We are about to receive the Governor.  I would like to just summarize quickly and thank the participants that have just given their speeches this Day Zero that we are truly excited about initiating on behalf of our Government. 

We would also like to tell you that we know that the official agenda starts tomorrow, but this small introduction is so that all of you with us, we can start to immerse ourselves in what the IGF implies.  We can start to get to know each other and start to approach each other in the hallways, and as our speaker said, this Forum is the one that allows for us to start to see the agenda that is going to be projected next year.  We know that there are many topics that are very important that we need to deal with.  As Ms. Lagunes said, we hope that at this Forum, we can pose more questions, new questions, because there are many solutions to be found.

We are coming very close to the moment of receiving our next panelist so we're going to give you a small 2‑minute recess so that we can begin with our ‑‑ the following part of our agenda, and give way to the participation of the Governor of Jalisco.  Thank you all for being here today.

[ Applause ]

>> Thank you for waiting.  We will rerun the video of the State of Jalisco to give a warm welcome to the Governor of the State of Jalisco.  Once again, the video.

[ Video ]

>> Thank you all.  I am very pleased to introduce Jorge Aristóteles Sandoval Diaz, Governor of the State of Jalisco.  He has a law degree from the University of Guadalajara, a Masters in policies from the technological Institute of superior Institute, superior studies.  He was municipal President in Guadalajara and since 2013 is the Governor of the State of Jalisco where he's led a fundamental transformation of the State that is focused on its citizens and result making.  Thank you and please welcome the Governor of the State of Jalisco.

[ Applause ]

>> ARISTOTELES SANDOVAL:  Good afternoon, good morning.  I would like to thank you all for your presence today.  I can see that you are starting to work here.  Welcome to the State of Jalisco.  This land of everything Mexican, this land of opportunity, of transformation, and change.  We are always sure that it's an opportunity to improve.

I'd like to take advantage of this opportunity to say hello to you and thank you for being here today, where you can analyze all of these things that can lead us to understand what we are living today.  Today, a 4.0 revolution that ‑‑ we need to understand from the Government's point of view which is our fundamental role in order to transcend in the daily life of our citizens.

In particular, Jalisco, capital of innovation, Jalisco, where we can find a technological ecosystem that has been greatly consolidated and in which youth communities are still growing with an inclusion of the private sector, knowledge Sector, and the Government, and we're generating prosperity and development.  In this Forum of the Internet, this world Internet Forum, here in Mexico and especially in Jalisco, we have set our agenda with a priority on the development of this essential instrument.

We were talking a few moments ago with those who have been promoting or are the fathers that are creators of Internet, and they were asking us:  What are you doing now in Jalisco?  How is it going?  What does it mean to broaden the Internet access, and take Internet to all the region?  We said that for us it's what can generate equality.  It's what keeps transforming every community.  It's what keeps us communicated in a permanent manner, knowing everything that's going on in our environment.  And this gives us different tools in order to lead our daily lives in every area of the State.

And here we are today, in which we are up to 125 connected municipalities.  We are basically at 55% of basic education, superior education.  We are approximately at 90% in public universities, University of Guadalajara and other private universities, and we are still investing.  We are still investing in having more broadband in different areas of the state, because we think that this reduces the gap of inequality.  This gives us the necessary tools that we're handing out around the State.

And not only regarding education.  Education is where we're working in particular in order to progress, maybe not at the speed of technology, but in order to coincide with the moment at which our basic education, students in the next five years, there will be different abilities that will be needed and that do not exist today.  We need to develop them.  We need to be able to use programs and to progress at this rate.

We're talking about abilities such as mathematical logic, languages, and obviously technologies.  This changes our infrastructures.  This changes the classical way in which a child learns.  This is why we are building the digital creative city.  This urban space that we wish to transform so that there we will develop creative industries, so that we can take advantage of our youth's talents.  But we are also creating infrastructures so that our students can learn in a different way, in a culture so rich as what we have but we need to take advantage of full‑time schools, and that after preschool, primary school, junior high, high school, et cetera, they can come to a digital University, a unique University.

We're working on pilot programs with the private sector such as Intel, where we have several students learning in different ways when it comes to artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, et cetera.  They're learning about different topics and surely this pilot program is going to be very useful for our digital University of the State.  In this University, we understand that what is important is the development of abilities, of the students learning, how they're going to apply and develop, and in this sense we have spoke when the Ministry of Education of the federal government and they have been very supportive, in order to be up to date with this revolution, with this 4.0 revolution.

We tend to believe that the future is far away, but this revolution is happening now and this is how we need to take a look at everything coming from the Government.  We live in a reality where we are all going to speak one language, and we see as a result a product of vanguard that is in accordance with world competitiveness, with our different industries that corresponds to the different services that we give throughout ‑‑ that we provide throughout the world.

This is how we look at things in this sector.  Why do we need to understand Internet as a virtual world that is transforming our reality?  Because today, the millennial generation, the apps generation, are speaking a completely different language.  Today, governors need to go into this world and support them so that they can keep developing and growing their potential.

And in this sense, we believe in this digital collectivity we believe in this democracy we have presented here, and every time we make a decision on behalf of the Government, they're going to tell us if we're doing this right or we're doing this wrong.  We have a diversification of ideas that are very useful, and this is the most equal space that we can find, a space in which everybody has an opinion, in which everybody can do something, and this transparency and sense of opportunity is what we need to be very sensitive to, in order to be up to date, to have a social thermometer and know if we're taking the right paths or we need to change it.

So add to the population, to a concept that is very interesting, which is co‑creation.  And in this sense, also our level of governance.  Governance means the inclusion in decision‑making processes of everybody:  You as a citizen, you can participate in the decision‑making processes of the Governments, and this takes Governments to a whole different level.  They become very horizontal.  Before, they used to make decisions in a vertical way.  Today, in the virtual world and through the Internet, and through the Web and this knowledge and this permanent dialogue that we're carrying out, we make decisions in a horizontal manner.

And this is how we are betting on Jalisco.  An open Government, a Government that is digital, that is Democratic, that is close to the people, a Government that is close to you, provides the services so that you from your home can have access to any process, to any service, without having physical contact with democracy.

This broadens transparency, makes it more efficient.  It reduces corruption because there's less contact between Government agencies and the citizens and we're promoting an improvement in our regulations within our state in accordance with other states that are progressing at our same pace.  And just like with an open Government, we are facing several challenges that we will present shortly in Paris, challenges through which the Government is presenting all of its data, it's opening everything up.  For example, I'd like to talk about poverty.

Day‑to‑day workers that come to Jalisco to farmlands to work and we hadn't identified them so now they're going to be ‑‑ we're going to have a registry.  They're going to be visible.  We're going to know who they are and what they need, and under what circumstances they're working and in this way, we can reduce exploitation.  And with this, society will know who they are, where they are, what their income is, what they're producing.  In the same way we're talking about challenges regarding, for example, the Ministry of Treasury and Finances so that purchases can be made with citizen participation, they can be integrated into a single platform, from the platform up to public bidding.  We can all know who is participating, who has won the bid, and nowadays, we can know what's happening with every purchase that the State Government makes.  Or when it comes to education, where can we get to when it comes to education coverage with those kids who wish to study high school?  How many applications there are, where they are, what their requirements are.  This promotes transparency.  It gives tools to our citizens and helps you participate in a co‑creative manner.

Why?  In order to generate opportunities and dialogue spaces, and in order to be able to include those who have been excluded.  This is the virtual world we're living in and we need to generate this true participation that can transform our reality as a society.  I say this because before, it seemed that these virtual spaces were pointed out due to the lack of privacy, but now for our youths, for millennials, for apps, for whoever, privacy is the thing they're least interested in.  They wish for transparency and we coincide in this space.  They find a community here.  It's more than the individualism that we saw before.  They seek to solve problems collectively.  They invite participation.  They wish to develop activities together, develop ideas together.  And we're living it here in Jalisco.

Here in Jalisco, when we got here in 2013, in this sector of communities or startups, we had about 400 or 500 small, new companies.  Today, with events such as campus Party or epicenter or Campus Night in which we reunited in an auditorium 5,000 of our youths on a single night, 12 times a year in order to present challenges and listen to them and that's where we begin to see an integrated community.  Today, we have a large amount of communities, over 7,000 entrepreneurs, more development, more employment, and our culture has changed.  Our culture of pointing out those who haven't been successful.  We changed the culture of fearing challenges.

We come from ‑‑ we have progressed from that Government that wasn't successful to this new one.  Today, those who have succeeded is those who have two or three failures behind them, because on the way to success, we know there are many obstacles.  And today, those who didn't succeed were pointed out.  More when it came to the educational process.  And so many fear participation because they fear doing things wrong.

If you participated and you were wrong, then you were pointed out.  Even your teacher did that.  But this is changing now.  This is changing in education, as well.  Today, there is more dialogue.  Today in this virtual world in which we are all a click away from knowledge, there's more interaction.  Today, our teachers are trained differently in order to be with their students, these students that get knowledge in a different way, and this has generated growth.  This has generated interaction from which we can all profit, but especially an interaction through which we can all improve our processes.

Everybody can aspire to be greater.  We have new companies that are starting to be successful, companies that are proudly from Jalisco and are exporting their services to the world.  Worldwide, these are our youths that created an idea, developed a community, included other missions, and that had the support of the public sector.  We believed in them.  They had the financing and the seed capital to develop their company, and this is how we want to progress.  We want to be able to tell a thousand stories of success.  This is how Jalisco is becoming the Silicon Valley of Mexico.  This is how Jalisco is having a dialogue in one single language, in which the private sector, the Sector of knowledge with innovation, technology labs, universities, and Governments coordinating the efforts of all others.  We are transforming our reality of our social Sector, of our society, of our families, giving them well‑being, promoting prosperity, but a shared prosperity in which we will all have better opportunities every day, and we will be able to reduce the gap of inequality.  This is how we're facing oh though is how we understand this new digital world, not as a trend.

We come to different meetings and we hear about innovation, and we think it's a trend, but here, it's in our roots.  We can see it up until the end results of innovation.  And we're taking it to all sectors:  The medical, pharmaceutical industries, the automotive industries, we have innovation labs that are the most developed in the world, and this is where the research is taking place, and here we're also promoting the registration of different patented trademarks.  We are growing year to year in areas that ‑‑ in which we had been very lacking in the last few years, because we believe in this 4.0 revolution, because we believe that today, in all areas of production, technology must be present, innovation must be present.

And we live in an interconnected way, and this is how our Governments need to start promoting these things, through real governance, and this is bringing to Jalisco, as a leader state, with an economic growth above 3.9%, with generation of employment, well‑paid employment, this sector is generating better and improved employment.  This is why our universities are growing more and more, especially when it comes to their curricular activities.

We have many engineers in our universities, engineers with great talents, and that's where we need to take a look at where we're lacking.  For example, in public universities, we're lacking a better English degree, so we're working so that our engineers will have a better understanding of the English language.

We are assessing different elements in our productive regions that didn't have technology before.  Today, technological transfer has been a sign of success in these communities or these regions of the State, these regions that are being very productive today and exporting to over 68 countries around the world, something that in 2013 only happened towards 33 countries.

This is how we have evolved.  This is how fast we have progressed.  This is a sign of the transformation in each of these areas in our state.  Today here, Jalisco was the first state that had a Ministry of Innovation and Information Technology.  Let me tell you that this Ministry began with a very small budget, but today it's one of the best budgets in our Administration, because we have seen the results of economic promotion when it comes to these innovations in pharmaceutical or medical topics and different industries of all areas.

And so for me it is an honor.  I'd like to congratulate the presidency of our Republic for organizing this Forum that is only just beginning and little by little will have established its own dynamics.  I'm expecting great results.  I'm sure they will be to transform and modernize our country from our Government sector, and we need to take advantage of the private sector and enrich all of our knowledge.

Guadalajara is your home for those of you who are here for the first time, I would like to say that this is the land of all that is Mexican.  It is the land of tequila.  I hope you will be able to visit Guadalajara.  I hope you will be able to accompany us in all of our tours.  You should listen to our music.  This is the land of mariachis, and the land of innovation, as well.  I hope you will take advantage of this opportunity.  I hope you will enjoy your stay here and we will see each other soon.  Thank you.

[ Applause ]

>> ENRIQUE ZAPATA:  Thank you very much.  We'd like to thank Governor Sandoval for his hospitality and his time.

This is the end of the morning session.  We're very grateful for your attention, and we kindly invite you for the high‑level meeting that will begin at 3:00 on the dot.  Thank you.

[ End of session ]