The following are the outputs of the captioning taken during an IGF virtual intervention. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid, but should not be treated as an authoritative record.
>> MACTAR SECK: Good morning. The room is full. If you can close the door, please. Okay. We'll get started now. Our session on cybersecurity. As you know, cybersecurity is very important for all the world, especially in Africa.
As you know, cyber crime accounts for 10% of GDP of African countries. We need to find a solution for that. We talk about cybersecurity. We have this African (?) on cyber crime. And also at the international level or so, we are trying to capacity build in Africa. Still now, the opportunity is there. We have less than 50% of the numbers (?)
We have a network programme on cybersecurity. We have the Global Forum for global security.
>> Great. Thank you. It's great to be here with you and everyone in this room. The Global Forum on Cyber Expertise is a global platform that has now over 180 members and partners, multistakeholder. Over 60 governments. We're looking for more. If you're interested in joining us, let us know. Civil Society, academia and a number of companies. We're trying to grow that.
A priority area for us has been Africa. A number of things we've been doing in Africa. I'd also say just to add to your comment, I've been doing cyber in some capacity for 30 years now. A long time. And it is conveniently becoming more of a priority for everyone. Not just for the security community. It's important to think of cybersecurity as an underlying foundation for the digitization agenda. The economic agenda. The human rights agenda. So it is a foundation for all of those things. And if we want to achieve, for instance, the UN Sustainable Development Goals, it's an important foundation for those as well. It's not mentioned separately, but it's cross cutting.
So as we think about all of the things in cyberspace, security is an important underlying element. As said, we're very active in Africa. We're working with the African Union. Created an African Cyber Experts Group. We're working to create a regional hub working with our colleagues over here. And there's a lot of cooperation between GFC and UNECA and the Digital Centre of Excellence in particular that we've been working very closely together. There's a number of things we can continue. One is to mobilize resources and implement more cyber capacity building programmes. Countries and individuals don't have that capacity building, they can't have the policies in place. They can't join the conversations needed to join at a global level. It's important for them to have that. Getting more resources for that is important.
To set indicators for capacity building, you can't do a one‑our and walk away. You have to have sustained effort. That's one of the challenges in this space. To support and organize training for African executives, norms and behavior in cyberspace is another priority for us. And support the African Cyber Capacity Building Agenda. Having this agenda document is going to be core at the conference we're putting on next year. We're bringing the developing community, traditional developing community, cybersecurity community together. We'll be announcing where there's going to take place and when during this week. It's a soft launch. The idea is to bring the communities together in a high level. Also working with UNECA to bring the local level to that as well. That's important to raise awareness. And as I said, working with UNECA is important. The Digital Centre of Excellence to support the African hub.
GSC is important. It's grown significantly. This is an important priority for us. I look forward to launching the document here today. We move forward with continued collaboration both with the Digital Centre of Excellence but also with all of you. If you have questions, we'll happy to work with you. Thank you for inviting me here this morning.
>> MODERATOR: Thank you.
We'll continue to share our cooperation. I have the pleasure to introduce you to a collaborator of climate change at United Nations Economic Coalition for Africa. Mactar?
>> MACTAR SECK: Thank you very much. Welcome to all of our partners on this very important subject of cybersecurity. I'm delighted to work with you on behalf of the United Nations. And in particular on behalf of our Executive Secretary.
It's timely and appropriate to have the Internet Governance Forum in Ethiopia particularly because if we look at the issues around digital transformations, we see the opportunity (?)
The COVID‑19 pandemic has shown both how Africa is extremely vulnerable to things such as COVID‑19, such as the food and energy crisis, associated conflict happening in Europe. We're also seeing huge opportunities that are linked to, for example, the use of digital technologies. We are seeing it in the midst of the COVID‑19 pandemic. We have 55 million additional new poor people affected by the economic impact. We've also seen a record investment in African textiles, more than $2 billion U.S. dollars.
So the threat and the opportunity are linked. I think in countries such as Ethiopia, they recognize that having a very appropriate cybersecurity policy and actions is one of the building blocks toward achieving digital transformation.
In the context of the African Union, cybersecurity is one of the pillars of which the African Union Digital Transformation Strategy is built. Particularly, recognizing the necessity to build capacity to deter and mitigate cyber threats.
We have to start from the recognition that Africa is not prepared as things stand. A vast majority of countries have a large amount of work to do. As part of the efforts to enhance Africa's cybersecurity posture, the United Nations Economic Commission of Africa has been working with the government and African heads of government and representatives we organized the first African Cybersecurity Summit in March of this year to effectively put in place and prioritize priorities for cybersecurity in the West African region and also the whole continent.
The events allowed us to come up with declarations and security (?) This looks at implementing the Convention on Cybersecurity. And following the meeting, we have also entered into agreement, the first African centre for the coordination research on cybersecurity.
As part of helping this capacity building, we also drafted guidelines for cybersecurity norm and provide guidance for states and cybersecurity legislation. Ensuring that benefits are then associated with, for example, having viable digital payments platforms are free and realized.
As we continue to implement many of the flagship initiatives of the African content and African Union, including the Free Trade Area, we'll reinforce this pillar. We appreciate the forum, the cybersecurity experts and look at this as something that's strategic going forward.
We also extremely appreciate the initiative with the African Union Commission to be able to ensure that we have as wide as coverage as possible. And that we can share experiences in a meaningful manner across the whole continent.
I should also flag that we're delighted to have in this Internet Governance Forum such a strong participation from African humanitarians who I think also play a key role in the oversight, also in the advocacy around cybersecurity frameworks.
To conclude, I think that cybersecurity is absolutely part of the pillars for inclusion and resilience. I think this is really fundamental to what we want to achieve from this IGF. Thank you very much.
>> MODERATOR: Thank you for this comprehensive statement. I would like also to (?)
Now let's go to the (?) To have the cybersecurity initiative in Africa.
You have the floor for your presentation, please.
>> JIMSON OLUFUYE: Ladies and gentlemen, my name is Jimson Olufuye. We've seen the general analytics. The directive of this research. Talk about summary recommendations. The level on the African side, the region, in Latin America.
We conclude this research, the development and solution. We have an overview. (?)
The positive relationship between cybersecurity and developing important solutions. And the communications continue to accelerate. All things and innovations.
So we respond to the initiative between cybersecurity and development. Mactar talked about this.
Cybersecurity, number one, 42 Internet ranking countries. It's assumed that this is reflected in each in the index.
Developing countries, Asia, Latin America. This is contained in the Internet (?)
Some of the logistics included also (?)
The weakest link, working on effective critical framework. Resources should be made available for cybersecurity capacity development at the lowest and mid‑level of the educational system.
Data indicated that the cybersecurity challenge relates to all nations. This implies to all nations need to collaborate especially under the auspices of the United Nations Commission of Science and Technology for Development which as the UN mandate through ECOSOC for global public policy issue. Cybersecurity is a global public policy issue. Cybersecurity is a global public policy issue.
I'd like to thank JP Adam. ITU. UNECA Support Staff. ITU 4 GCI. National Telecom regulators of Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, so forth for this data.
The Internetworldstats, Datareportal for GDP and Internet Penetration statistics referenced for the research. And available data on cyber attacks and associated financial losses.
I thank my research team members for their support. I want to say thank you all for listening as well. Thank you.
>> MACTAR SECK: Thank you, Jimson, for this very brilliant presentation. As you know, it is very important. We have a lot of data. If we have data, we can develop our own indicator. It's what we try to do in this policy exercise.
Now you have this correlation between cybersecurity and GDP, Internet penetration and the GDP. We have several findings. This will be finalized and put online. I'll ask the discusser to come and give their review on this report. Let me check, Nnenna, are you online?
>> NNENNA: Yes. I am, Mactar.
>> MACTAR SECK: Nnenna?
>> NNENNA: Yes, please.
>> MACTAR SECK: Your view, analyze on this report.
>> NNENNA: Okay. Good morning, everyone. Yes. I can go ahead, Mactar.
>> MACTAR SECK: Introduce yourself and go ahead.
>> NNENNA: Good morning, everyone. My name is Dr. Nnenna. I'm excited to join everyone to discuss this report.
I want to start off by saying thank you to UNECA for commissioning this research. Because in Africa, every time we come together, most times the discussion tilts toward cybersecurity and legal frameworks. We usually do not consider other aspects that drive a people‑centered approach to cybersecurity which is development.
This research absolutely underscores the importance of cybersecurity for achieving development in Africa.
I just wanted to in three minutes just talk about the relevance of this research. And the findings.
I wanted to highlight the fact that a discussion of development will be inconclusive without the mention of people having access to the Internet, the discussion of digital technologies and, of course, technology advancement. And that is what the research has underscored by showing a correlation of Internet penetration to development.
As certain, the increase in per‑capita GDP associated with the increase of the number of Internet users. And concluding an increase in Internet penetration in developing countries points to an increase in GDP per capita.
I just wanted to say on behalf of the present changes being witnessed in terms of development, the innovations made possible by ICTs. Why this research is important if you go to the report is because first, as I would say, the development is a human right. And as a continent, we must continue to think of how people can express their rights to development. Africa is the only region in the world where development is expected as a binding human right in the African Chapter of People on Human Rights.
As Jimson portrayed in the report, it's now a precursor. If you look at the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in fact, the World Bank now uses access to the Internet as an indices for measuring ‑‑ one of the indices for measuring development.
The potential for ICTs to reduce poverty, enhance economic growth, has also been underscored in that report. The report has also underscored that ICTs have the vital role to play in national, regional, and global development and a promise for the future of Africa.
However, this cannot be achieved without cybersecurity. And there's no better time for this report. Because Africa is presently pursuing digital transformation through the Digital Transformation Agenda 2020‑2030.
One of the things I particularly like about the research is the methodology. We look at the report has outlined methodology where it checks Internet penetration data in top 40 African countries and then looks at data from the Middle East and Latin America. Showing the correlation of cybersecurity and GDP over a period of ten years in the global south. And why is this methodology important? It is important because in the context of cybersecurity, there are many reasons to underscore research from a Global South perspective. Through looking at the commonalities and basis of disparities in the Global South.
Again, why should we look at research methodologies in terms of cybersecurity from the Global South? Because it will also help in achieving better for developing countries when we consider Global South approaches. Especially cybersecurity because there are social, political, and cultural perspectives to cybersecurity.
I also absolutely agree with the report that cybersecurity assurance is an imperative for digital transformation and for advancing African's digital economy.
>> MACTAR SECK: Thank you very much, Nnenna. Thank you very much. We appreciate your view on this report. And your analysis. Thank you.
Next, let me check if Dr. Abdul Hakeem is online.
>> I am online.
>> MACTAR SECK: You have three minutes. Introduce yourself and give your finding of this report.
>> ABDUL HAKEEM: Because of the three minutes, I'll skip all that. Let me greatly acknowledge UNECA for support and team for impressive statistical detail.
Personally, my single most important takeaway from this well‑researched report is we must use it as a template for developing other reports. As a basis for producing empirical evidence using accurate statistics.
We need to support and work with academia, Civil Society, and other organisations to generate our own accurate statistics and empirical evidence that African decision makers like parliamentarians which Mactar had mentioned earlier so they can use it to support, you know, arriving at decisions that they make on behalf of all of us in Africa.
I would really urge UNECA to basically help us or support Africa in developing academic institutional repositories of cyber data with credibility. Johns Hopkins University in the U.S. I call on organisations like UNECA and Global Forum on Expertise producing complementary reports to support one high‑level academic institution. Data repository and analytics in each of the African, region, communities.
Africa has comparatively less attacks and losses than other parts of the world, I would argue that the impact of such losses even per capita is much more meaningful and significant to us.
In aligning with the report's observations relating to cybersecurity as being critical to Internet‑enabled economic development activities, confidence in digital Africa requires trust built on cybersecurity. Society and its organisations require trust to function. This is predicated on the confidentiality and so on of information as data is increasingly digitized.
Again, the report indicates that the 10% increase in cybersecurity maturity delivers an increase in GDP of between 0.66% and 5.4%. The report also notes a 10% increase in Internet penetration yields a per capita average growth of between $31 and $256.
Even if you have increased Internet penetration, if it's not secure, nobody will use it. Jimson mentioned the African countries need to diverse their income, boost African trade, specifically through the African Continental Free Trade Agreement. Let's place this in context. Much of the world's trade is carried by ship. Many of you recall in July 2021, Transnet of South Africa which manages four ports including Durbin suffered a ransomware attack. The lessons here, greater clarity and communication. The vessels, not just the ports, are also under threat. Cybersecurity events will be, you know, continue to grow and become more significant. Unfortunately.
Now, speaking of the Continental Free Trade Agreement, I believe we have a once in history opportunity as a continent to develop our own Continental secure African digital bank digital currency that empowers our nations to have control over government regulators over monetary supply and monetary policy whilst we create indigenous payment systems. I encourage us to leverage reports like this to push forward that.
>> Thank you very much, my brother. Let me give the floor to you because you're here.
>> I'll do my best. I head a company called ICANN. International Chamber of Commerce.
First of all, I support the work done by UNECA and the team as well as consultant Jimson and his team.
One thing for sure is that this is maybe one of the first time where we were able really to identify, aggregate, collect and aggregate data from 40 countries in Africa. And this is the most important part of the report. It's really a base line to start from. 40 countries is a big number out of 55 or 56. This is a big number. We need to add to this. As mentioned by Mactar, we can build based on this our own indicators.
Now, back to the report. Maybe I have two points mainly. One, we need to still be cautious because the Correlation Index is not largely positive. Most of them are lightly positive. Most importantly, it does not mean the cause and effect. We don't know if it is because countries have better GDP, or having better Internet penetration and cybersecurity. Or because they have done better Internet penetration. They made better GDP. This has been confusing far long period of time all over the world. And no one have proved this way or the other.
There is a positive correlation. Not a strong one. But we need to think it carefully.
The second point which is mostly important, I was really happy to find the industry ‑‑ this is where we are now. This is where we are going. It's a good start. But in order to be able to see further into this, we need to see the correlation not with the general GDP but with each subsector. Especially agriculture, manufacturing, tourism, trade, et cetera, to see exactly the effect of the industry. And we all know that we ‑‑ this is very important to take into the recommendation. We lack a lot of not just on African level but all over the world. We lack the required regulation related to IoT. Related to generally Internet of Things and cybersecurity in the Internet of Things each.
My recommendation is we need to move forward with a more deeper study based on this one. To continue the effort by identifying more information from the African countries. This is the most important part. And then start building our own indicators to reflect. Thank you very much.
>> MACTAR SECK: Thank you. Well noted. Let me give the floor quickly to Dr. Olutoyin online. If he's online, we'll be happy.
>> OLUTOYIN: So congratulations to the UNECA for starting this. It's very important one. For improvement.
Online, we take the position of the last speaker on this issue. And while I'm agreeing, it's very important that we appreciate what we have done. It's not easy. All UNECA has done to start it. You know. It's a starting point. We need to look at whether the correlation is closer. Whether the Internet penetration of cybersecurity has cost effect on, you know, the development aspect that we're trying. That initiative, we need more time to start the research quickly. We started it as a template. Quickly worked more on it.
Then, too, the area, yes, getting input from our government is good. We need to do more on that to go to the informal sector to capture data. This is very important. If we're able to do that, in Nigeria, for example, we have a population of 40 billion.
Analysis most of the times, economic report that is given on Nigeria, which extends to Africa. Get it in a few cities, they will now need to (?)
I'd most like to give us a simple issue on this, Internet penetration and cybersecurity issues. For example, you have a whole ‑‑
>> MACTAR SECK: Thank you very much. We have a discussion online. Thank you very much.
>> OLUTOYIN: Thank you.
>> MACTAR SECK: We're running out of time. Now I'm sorry, I can't give you to discussion. Going to launch the guideline model for cybersecurity. You'll have a day to come back. And I will also send you the link of this report. And you can adjust this report to today.
Now let me give the floor to Deputy Minister of ITC Namibia to close this meeting. Emma.
>> VERNA: Thank you very much, Mactar. Very good morning, afternoon, perhaps, not to everybody. I think I will join others in congratulating UNECA and appreciating Mr. Jimson, the consultant, for putting this report together. I think if I can recall from the first Cybersecurity Summit we held where we signed the Lima Declaration, we understood the importance of cybersecurity and how it impacts systems across our countries in terms of governance, in terms of decision making. We appreciate this report that has been put together covering a wide range of countries.
And, of course, data collection is important. We in the country have also through the president have put together a Fourth Industrial Revolution Task Force in government, country, to see how we can best prepare for the Fourth Industrial Revolution as Mr. William ‑‑ it's not you. (Laughing) Very well. Yes. Definitely.
So I think as I end off, since we are pressed with time, as I read the report, I'll be very interested to look at the aspect of the gender element. I say this because more and more women are threatened with participation online. And if we have a better system in place to protect women's participation online and how that could definitely impact our GDP, I'll be interested to look at those linkages.
And as a lawmaker, as a member of parliament and as a Deputy Minister responsible for ITC in Namibia, I welcome this report and look forward to collaborative efforts that strengthen our systems around cybersecurity and make our data more African specific in order for us to actually take decisions for an African context at this point in time. Thank you very much.
>> MACTAR SECK: Thank you. Thank you. The session is closed. Let's go to the opening ceremony. See you Thursday. Thank you.