IGF 2022 Day 3 Open Forum #97 Adopting Data Governance Framework: From Silos to Ecosystem

The following are the outputs of the captioning taken during an IGF intervention. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid, but should not be treated as an authoritative record.



>> MODERATOR: Once again, good morning, everyone.  Thank you for taking time to join.  I know the IGF is always very exciting because there are so many sessions to choose from.  We have over 300 sessions as part of UN DESA.  I think it is important too. I thank you for making the choice to spend your precious time with us here.  Today's session this is actually an Open Forum organize by UN DESA focusing on Adopting Data Governance Framework, From Silos to Ecosystem.  Are you able to share the screen? 

>> Yeah.

>> MODERATOR: I will run through the program very briefly.  I would really like to invite for active participation.  We have a lineup of speakers for ... okay.  Let me start it once again.  Welcome to this Open Forum, it is focusing on Adopting Data Governance Framework, From Silos to Ecosystem approach.  This is part of the initiative of UN DESA, we are supporting countries in Africa, Asia‑Pacific, especially the developing countries in putting together integrated, holistic national data governance framework.  We realize the data governance in today's framework has to be multistakeholder and also to relate to global data governance.  So we are very glad to have participants here on‑site and online to be here and to share with us your insights. 

We have a few guiding questions.  I hope you can look at our information on the event page in IGF website.  There you can see the guiding questions, which I will not take time to repeat here.  You can also look at the bios of our speakers.  So we don't have to spend too much time introducing the speakers.  Perhaps, again, speaking of time, I will not take more time to elaborate, but to invite our ‑‑ okay, agree, we have the guiding questions here that I can go through very quickly.  The data developments and all of you will agree and heard that data is the new goal, oil, and currency for digital economy.  How Governments can look at employing a holistic or whole of Government approach in developing and implementing integrated national data governance framework.  And why a multistakeholder approach is useful? 

Can we pause that for a moment?  Can we pause the video for a moment?  Our technical colleague. 

(background chatter)

>> MODERATOR: Okay, my apologies.  We have to ‑‑ give me one more minute to play the video.  One more minute.  In relates to national data governance framework, how that is to be related to global data governance and multistakeholder approach.  That is why we're here today at the Internet Governance Forum to discuss these very pertinent issues.

With that, let us start with our opening session.  We have a few speakers, starting with Mr. Juwang Zhu, the Director of division of public institutions and digital Governments, U.N. Department of Economic and social affairs.  Can you play the recorded view of Mr. Juwang Zhu, please. 

>>VIDEO: (Audio is not clearly audible via Zoom).


>> JUWANG ZHU: (Via video) support developing countries in Africa ‑‑ there is a need for standards for data use, sharing and exchange, but there are also urgent needs to inform data risk and security management, legal and regulatory compliance process and helps improve productivity and accountability in decision making while respecting personal data privacy.  With your engagement and advice today, we hope to better frame the current challenges and opportunities to advance and tap on the vast potential for digital data.  I wish all an engaging and fruitful discussion.  Thank you. 

>> MODERATOR: Thank you.  Thank you.  So now, let's we will have the honor to listen to our next speaker, His Excellency, Huria Ali.  I must again express thanks.  We give not enough thanks to our host, the Government of Ethiopia.  But also very glad Excellency can join us this session because we are collaborating with the Government through Ministry of Innovation and technology on this very subject on the national data governance framework.  Excellency, you have the floor.

>> Huria Ali: Thank you very much.  Dear participants of this Forum, good morning, good afternoon, good evening, wherever you are.  I hope you have participated meaningfully in all of the discussion, debates, dialogues on the Internet Governance so far.

As you are well aware, we're witnessing the rapid growth of technology and data, however it also entails a multitude of risks and limitations.  Issues related to the Digital Divide, security and privacy combined with inadequate digital and digital literacy are areas of concern for many.

This has been witnessed in several areas and across different institutions and levels of Government here in Ethiopia.  In Ethiopia, the importance of data and data governance challenge and development has grown with respect to the delivery of public services, Academia, research, and real‑world applicability and acceptance.  Today, much of Government operational activities are data‑driven and data centric, and many Government institutions would struggle to carry out their mandate effectively without accurate and high‑quality data.

The necessity for efficient the data management and data governance in Ethiopia has taken on a new urgency in light of the exponential growth of Government data as well as growing awareness of its immense, associated challenge.  In light of this, the Ethiopian Government, and Department of Social affairs initiated a project that will innovative the effective national data governance framework in Ethiopia while engaging the various Government and Government stakeholders.  Dear participants, in an effort to complete this, a baseline is conducted and workshop was held with stakeholders.  Through this process we have realized that data governance is essential because it gives an organization data meaning.  It fosters confidence and understanding in an organization data and through business glossary.  Accelerating data transformation.  We have also been advised to take short‑term actions in a systematic manner while being guided by a long‑term vision of unintegrated framework that include policy issues.

Additionally, we have learned how crucial coordination between pertinent Governmental entities, across sectors, ministries and different level of Government.  Dear participants of this Forum, we're aware that the data governance at the national level lags somewhat in terms of policy and process, however the Ethiopian Government and my ministry dedicated to setting in place an effective data governance framework using this approach.  The strategy will include a long‑term vision that will be integrated into the first‑ever Digital Transformation strategy implementation plan, as well as I mentioned earlier, a short‑term action that will identify low‑hanging fruits and king, queens.  On the other hand, such crucial governance in cities, a concrete response from stakeholders and development partners.

To that end, I would like to request that UN DESA keep supporting this crucial national project until the national governance framework is put in place for Ethiopia.

I further encourage the panelists and participants of this Forum to provide additional insights regarding the national data governance.  Thank you so much. 

>> MODERATOR: Thank you, Excellency for sharing this very important and significant advancement of national data governance in Ethiopia.  Next, I would like to invite our guest online.  He's the Secretary of State, Minister of Post and telecommunications, in the Government of Cambodia, Excellency, Mr. Sok Puthyvuth.  Please, you have the floor.

>> Sok Puthyvuth: Thank you very much. 

>> MODERATOR: Yes, we can see, yes, go ahead, please.

>> Sok Puthyvuth: Yes, Excellency, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen ‑‑

>> MODERATOR: We cannot hear you. 

>> Sok Puthyvuth: Can you hear me? 

>> MODERATOR: We hear you now, go ahead. 

>> Sok Puthyvuth: Excellency, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen, first of all thank you to UN DESA for coordinating such a big and important event.  I apologize that I cannot be at the event in person, but thanks to technology I'm able to participate on this important panel. 

Due to the time limit, I can give you a little bit of what is happening in Cambodia, the Government of Cambodia has been pushing strongly on Digital Transformation.  Our Prime Minister has set a goal to make Cambodia a high‑income country by 2050.  And recently Cambodia has graduated to join middle‑income country.  And this is important milestone for Cambodia.

We understand going forward, to achieve Prime Minister's vision, we have to embrace technology.  Recently, our Government has established a National Council for digital economy and digital society.  We understand that for Cambodia to achieve high‑income country in the future, it is not just for improving people's income, but also quality of life, we have to embrace technology.  So to become and transform our economy into a digital economy.  And to become a digital economy, our Government also have to transform itself to digital Government.  And currently, under the Council, which is chaired by our Prime Minister, we have three national Committee, Committee of national digital Government, Committee of digital economy and business, and digital security Committee. 

And so far, I think our ministry has been coordinating with the ‑‑ to support digital Government Committee.  And we have established digital Government policy and master plan.  Under the guidance of digital economy and digital society framework. 

In this important event, I understand we have discussed about digital Government framework moving from silo to ecosystem approach.  I'm very happy that our team and the Government are able to participate in this event and learn more about what's happening at the global level. 

In Cambodia, we understand that connectivity within the country and following the directions and standards at the regional and international level is important.  Because at the end, all of the Digital Transformation is to improve the quality of life and also improve collaboration of Cambodia and the Region.  Cambodia to the international stage. 

So I'm very happy that we're able to participate in this important event.  I hope that through this event we can have further collaboration on how Cambodia can join at the international level and also be able to support what we're doing here in the country.  And also align the strategy policy and standard to support what's happening at the international level as well. 

I hope through the following discussions with the team and with the team from UN DESA and all the other Government and country support, we hope that the future in developing you know, a digital society for Cambodia, as we have studied many numbers of very successful country in doing Digital Transformation.  We hope that Cambodia will be able to establish a strong digital Government to support a strong digital economy in Cambodia.  And hopefully build a type of digital society that will be, you know ‑‑ that will be supportive of our vision.  And most importantly of supporting the future generation of Cambodia and hopefully contributing to solve all the major challenges globally. 

So with that, I would like to thank you UN DESA, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen on this panel, on this event, and I look forward to further discussions in the panel.  Thank you very much. 

>> MODERATOR: Thank you, thank you, Secretary of Sharing the perspective of another country in the continent in the Asia‑Pacific that we're also looking forward where the Internet governance Forum will be hosted by Japan next session.

Next speaker is online, Professor Meng Qingguo from the School of Public policy and management, he's connecting online through Beijing.  Professor, you have the floor, please.  We cannot hear you Professor, can you ‑‑ can you say something? 

Yes, we can hear you now.  You have five minutes, go ahead, sir. 

>> Meng Qingguo: (Audio not audible).

>> MODERATOR: Just now I did hear your voice, but not now. 

Can you please go ahead, sir? 

Um ... I believe you could be muted.  You have to unmute yourself on the bottom left.  Bottom left to unmute yourself.  Yeah, on the bottom left ... there's a screen share.  Professor Meng Qingguo, are you able to come back online? 

>> Meng Qingguo: Yeah.

>> MODERATOR: Go ahead.  We hear you.  You have five minutes, go ahead, please. 

>> Meng Qingguo: Okay.  Thank you, thank you. 

>> MODERATOR: Please go ahead with your remarks.

>> Meng Qingguo: (Audio skipping) (inaudible).

>> MODERATOR: Your audio is not consistent, Professor.  I hear you, then we lost you.  (Chuckling).

Professor, there is some technical issue.  Let us see whether we can sort that out offline.  So if you may ‑‑ if I may, I will come back to you later. 

>> Meng Qingguo: I'm sorry, I ... (audio skipping).

>> MODERATOR: I hear you just now.  Can you go ahead and continue to give your remarks? 

Okay.  Let's proceed.  We still have a technical challenge connecting across different continents, but we will see whether we can hear from the Professor later.  Without further ado, I would like us to proceed with the interactive panel discussion.

The first panel we have two moderators.  Online Dr. Mesfin Kifle on my right.  And on‑site moderator, Louise Marie.  We have Mesfin Kifle is from database University and Louise Marie is from London School of Economics. 

>> Mesfin Kifle: Thank you for the nice introduction, and thank you for coming here and being with us in this Forum.  The first panel part is all in national data governance from silo to ecosystem.  Following more comprehensive approach.  The multistakeholder approach.  Framework based approach.  In this regard the first panel part we'll concentrate and focus on the few aspects of data governance, which are actually data standardization, classification, sharing and interoperability. 

There are very distinguished panelists for this session part.  And first, from Ghana, Honorable Akanvariba Lydia Lamisi.  She's coming close to us.  And from Japan Mr. Yoichi Iida.  I think next to the right part here.  And also from UNESCO Brazil, Ms. Marielza Oliveira.  She's not here.  We have two distinguished panelists from Ghana and Japan.  You will share us your views and experience regarding to the approach with respect to their Ghana experience and Japan experience and also international experience. 

Having said that, online moderator, Louise, can you take the floor to share a few words.

>> LOUISE MARIE: Can you hear me.

>> Mesfin Kifle: Yes.

>> LOUISE MARIE: I wanted to introduce myself, I'm at School of Economics and at UN DESA.  In my role as an online moderator is to potentially trigger thoughts around, you know, how to think about going from silos to ecosystem.  And from that particular standpoint, when we think about the rise of incidents of cyber attacks, it leads us to a conversation about the integrity of data, thinking about how to secure and ensure the development is sustainable in a digital economy and digital society.

So just to keep it brief.  I think one of my provocations here is how can we ensure that data governance in this effort of going from silos to ecosystem, how can data actually, you know, be not a conversation between like do we focus on innovation or do we prioritize security?  Right?  How can we reconcile different agendas, different ways of viewing development in this digital economy

With that, I will leave it back to the floor so we can have this fruitful conversation. 

>> Mesfin Kifle: Thank you for the highlight on the major points that we need to discuss and hear different views from the different panelists, Louise. 

Everyone has seen the guiding questions we're looking at in general.  Framework approach, all Government, all society approach.  A multistakeholder approach and also interlinkage between the national data governance and global data governance.  From this point perspective, your Honorable Akanvariba Lydia Lamisi from Ghana, please take the floor and share your points.  Thank you. 

>> Akanvariba Lydia Lamisi: Thank you for this opportunity to share the little experience we have in our country.  I am most honored to be part of this panel discussion.

What is happening in Ghana is not too different from what is actually happening in other parties of the African continent.  In Ghana we have the cybersecurity department and we celebrate cybersecurity week every year.  That happens in the first week of November.

We also have the data protection authority.  That has the mandate of protecting the data of every Ghanaian in the country.  We also have the national identification authority.  That deals with data security and cybersecurity.

In Ghana what we will do is have all of the enabling legislature in place.  We have most of the infrastructure built, but our issue is about implementation.  If what we have ‑‑ we actually go ahead to implement all the legislation that we have, I think Ghana would be one of the better places for cybersecurity and data protection.  Another issue that we are looking at is the gap between urban and rural communities.  Where cybersecurity and data protection is a challenge.  All because of the issue of Internet services.

For instance, if you look at the actual divide, the gap between the rural and urban is about ‑‑ if the rural is doing about 25%, the urban is doing about 50%.  The gap is so wide.  When we come to gender, you look at what Ghana has ‑‑ the gender divide in our community.  For instance, if males are doing about 50% of Internet, women are doing about just 20 to 35% of the Internet.  So maybe that is one of the challenges that we have.  But Ghana is looking out to the community, whereby we can interlude other African countries.  We have the same legislature that can make us work together to be able to protect our country in the issue of cybersecurity and cybercrime. 

Though we have other countries in the same region with us, one of the issues ‑‑ because most of the countries surrounding Ghana is about French‑speaking countries.  And at least most of the countries that are surrounding Ghana are French‑speaking countries to the East and West.  We have Burkina Faso and Cote d'Ivoire and Togo to the West.  At the end of the day, until that legislature can be able to have a coordinated effort between the three or four countries, cybersecurity will be a challenge.  Because of that we're looking to a resilient legislature that will help us to be able to control the subregion and manage cybersecurity activities.

For instance, we have e‑commerce, e‑Parliament, e‑business, other things.  And we do most of the businesses online.  But alas, we need to do a lot to develop Ghana as a country and develop other African countries surrounding as a regional agenda. 

I think this is what I can share with you.  And maybe with time, if there are other questions we can answer to be able to explain better what we are doing in Ghana.  This is what we have ‑‑ I have as a small explanation for what is actually happening in Ghana.  Thank you very much.  We are looking forward to the talk today.  Thank you.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you.  Thank you Akanvariba Lydia Lamisi sharing your Ghana experience regarding to the national data governance.  Now, I turn for next panelist Mr. Yoichi Iida.  Deputy Director General for G7 and G20 relations.  He was leading the previous session.

Even in case between national data governance and global data governance, please share your views and opinions in this regard, please. 

>> Yoichi Iida: Thank you very much for the question.  I will be brief.  But please understand what I'm explaining from now, it is my personal view rather than our Government official view.  I'm rather specialized in international aspect.  So maybe my colleagues working in domestic regulation may say something different.  But allow me to speak out my own impression.  In Japan, of course, we have been working to ‑‑ very hard to facilitate data utilization and data innovation through data. 

But yes, what we have seen is you know people were very reluctant, not very active in using data and sharing data.  Especially across different sectors.  So that is one of the reasons when my colleagues discussed national data strategy, which was completed only last year. 

The basic idea is if I answer the question by the first panelist, emphasis on innovation, or emphasis on security, we are putting more emphasis on innovation and enabling environment.  Of course, as the concept of DFFT data free flow with trust shows, without trust, people do not want to use data.  People don't want to share data.  So we need trust.  And we need some rules.  But rules is not built up only by the regulation.  We have ‑‑ trying to accumulate a good practice, where the Private Sector players can use data more freely and without concern across sectors.

So our national data strategy was completed only last year, but we have been more active in discussing internationally the data strategy.  Which I explained in other sessions.  We started ‑‑ we proposed the discussion data flow and data information flow across borders in the year 2016, because we thought we are getting into era of IoT or data‑driven innovation.  It is essentially important to make best use of data.  Not only in the national market, but also data from beyond borders.  So we promoted the discussion internationally and in parallel, we were running from the international discussion in the data strategy.  That is why we put the same basis of concept of DFFT both in our international strategy and national data strategy. 

So from the very beginning, we believe data should be not blocked in the ‑‑ inside the border.  And should flow and utilized beyond the border.  So we ‑‑ I think this is a kind of natural way of progress.  When we promoted international discussion and national regulation in parallel at the same time. 

When we talk about silo, as I said, we had a very persistent problem in each priority sector, such as healthcare, medical care, transport, education.  They have a lot of reluctance to share the data across sectors.  That is an urgent challenge.  At the same time when we discuss policy framework or regulation, we don't think the transversal, horizontal regulation can be achieved at this moment.  Data has different nature in different sectors and we don't pursue horizontal regulation across borders, even if people say in silos we may implement regulation mainly on sector basis. 

So of course, this should contribute to the data flow, smooth operation of data utilization across the sectors.

So this is what I personally am thinking.  I'm not sure my colleagues fully agree to this, but before ‑‑ for the last several years, our Government has been pursuing international discussion in parallel with national strategy implementation.  So thank you very much. 

>> MODERATOR: Thank you, thank you Mr. Yoichi Iida for sharing your experience, opinion and review regarding to engage with national data governance, national, regional, and global, and some issues that are to be taken as a concern in this regard.

Now, I turn to the next panelist in this session, Mr. Hasanul Haq Inu, next to me on the left, the floor is yours ‑‑ Ms. Marielza Oliveira. 

>> Director for partnership and operational program.

>> Marielza Oliveira: Thank you, and sorry for rushing in here.  The other meeting ran over a little bit.  This is the freedom of expression, information data privacy, and has to do with data, of course.  Access to information is essentially access to the vast stores of digital data and information available over the Internet.  And which has been empowering Digital Transformation including through new technologies such as artificial intelligence.

I always joke that artificial intelligence has two components, talent and data.  That is essentially what all emerging technologies work with.  Data is actually the element that enables us to derive socioeconomic value.  (Audio skipping) as individuals as communities, as societies, through the vast stores of information in the Internet.

So building capacity and gaining access without any interruption is something that needs to be championed.

In many places, we're seeing the rise and interest of national systems to regulate and to put forward frameworks that enable full access to information in this aspect.  In terms of information laws, currently we have about 160 countries ‑‑ I'm sorry, 140 countries around the world that have information laws, particularly for public information.  This is essential but not sufficient for the elements of data.

It is essential because what we do with the data flows, the information we have available on the Internet is to empower digital innovation as we say but need to put the right frameworks of protection also of privacy and against different types of biases on data sets that may exist.

So one of the things that UNESCO is doing right now is providing you know, debating, and finalizing guidelines for access to public data.  To be provided to Governments at the global level so we can inspire the regulatory frameworks at national level that enable us to really derive the benefits that enable us to realize the right to education because we have education data available.  To right the justice because we have the justice data available.  The right to health because we have health data available without you know impacting negatively, you know, on the protections that we need you know particularly to vulnerable groups that tend to be excluded by data collection systems.  First, they're not present on the Internet.  And second not present in sufficient numbers or insufficient ‑‑ or with sufficient intensity, because they don't have the right data package, affordability, so on, so forth.

Some of the guidance, I will quickly read for you some of the elements that will come.  Free and rights to access to information.  Looking at maximum exposure that makes access applicable to all public bodies to the widest extent possible and restricted only in limited circumstances.

Decision‑makers should proceed from a favor of disclosure without asking individuals to demonstrate particular interest in information or explain the reason for the request.  The duty to publish.  Proactive disclosure that applies public bodies to disseminate documents of public interest without request.  It will be more economical than responding to multiple requests for the same information.

Processes to facilitate access, stating the request should be processed rapidly and fairly.  And independent review of refusal should be available.  This requires that simple clear procedures be established to guide how public bodies deal with requests and how citizens can access information.

Costs protecting individuals from being deterred for requests of information from excessive coasts even if there is a cost implication for public bodies.  Right to appeal, to have a review of the decisions made by public authorities and that right is represented in marshal international standards and a real lever to wider disclosure, especially when revealing corruption or incompetence.  It should provide an avenue for procedure to raise issues about public entity publication and decisions.

Limited scopes of exceptions.  Requiring exceptions withholding from citizens should be clear, well‑founded in law and narrowly defined.  Open Government, aiming at changing the secrecy of public bodies.  Enabling whistle blowers.

Those are elements that are part of that and principles and standards and the guidelines will clarify how we go about ensuring that the information ecosystem is fertilized by reliable, public information that is available for all to empower innovation and empower citizens to work with public services more fairly, more closely and more efficiently.  Thank you. 

>> Mesfin Kifle: Thank you.  Thank you Marielza Oliveira for sharing the perspective of the UNESCO intergovernance and data governance.  Thank you, again.  I hand over the moderation to Deniz Susar for the next discussion.  Deniz Susar, take the floor.

>> Deniz Susar:  Good morning, everyone.  My name is Deniz Susar.  I'm working at the United Nations Department of Social Affairs.  I know we are running out of time.  The second panel members must be worried that they have less time to speak.  So without giving any further ado, I will pass to the first speaker.  But before that let's just remember that in the Global Digital Compact, that the SG proposed in the common agenda, the third action point is protect data.  So this will come more and more in the international agenda. 

So my first speaker is Mr. Mansaray Salieu technical advisors to the Vice President of Sierra Leon.  Please respect the time of three minutes. 

>> Mansaray Salieu: I will try to keep it short.  I was former advisor.  If we take into account what other jurisdictions are doing, more so with Europe and GDPR, it is a norm that companies, those operating in Europe or whose businesses have access to European data have to abide by GDPR rules.  And I think we have to look at how we can make that universal to ensure that data is protected right across globally.  For example, if companies want to interact globally, they have to meet certain standards.  It is called third‑party governance.  We have to ask why couldn't that be done between citizens and their Governments?  To ensure that before I give you my data, I need to be ‑‑ I need to have a document that says all of your systems are protected and that my data will be protected.  We have to look at the issue of compliance, the issue of setting standards. 

For example, there is ISO27001.  We should set a standard for Governments so I can feel comfortable with giving you my data.  So keeping it within the 30 minutes I have been given.  30 minutes or three minutes?  Three minutes.  Thank you very much.  Thank you.

>> Deniz Susar: Thank you for that valuable input.  I will turn to my colleague, Ms. Mariam Jobe, program and engagement manager project Gambia.  And Secretariat to AF IGF.

>> Mariam Jobe: Thank you.  Since we're short on time, I will be as precise as possible.  It was mentioned that people don't want to give their data.  It is more often because there is little or no transparency.  In the African area there is little to no security.  There is lot of data happening in Africa.  In one Region, when you go for your ID card or passport, there is a system that ‑‑ the contract is outsourced.  You will ask questions regarding your parents, where they live, come from, telephone number, all of that to get your ID card.  There is a lot of data harvesting, but people don't know where their data is going, who is storing it, where it is being stored.  When you talk about data protection, we need to know more. Ed storage not to violate human rights.  And privacy protection where big data has personal and oftentimes sensitive data.  We want to make sure the privacy is safeguarded.  And to understand how the data is used and the transparency that people know that their data is collected, why it is collected, and for what reasons.  Along with the knowledge they can trust you that you will protect their data.  Am I on track?  Yes. 

>> Deniz Susar: Definitely.

>> Mariam Jobe: Recently in Gambia, we had a massive hack against the Bank of Gambia they have access to 2 gigabytes of vital information that can affect personal finances of most Gambiense.  And accurate figures of the state of Gambia.  This is important when you talk about this.  You need to have, when you talk about governing data have cybersecurity measures put in place at national level as well.  Thank you. 

>> Deniz Susar: Thank you so much.  I will turn to Ms. Lily Edinam Botsyoe from Ghana Youth IGF.  Yes.  Thank you.  And after that we will get relictions from the online moderator.  In the meantime, if there are questions, feel free to put in the chat or we will see if we have time from the floor.

>> Lily Edinam Botsyoe: I feel like a good foundation has been laid for me.  To piggyback on what Mariam Jobe said, what we talk about Internet security, it is grounded in development, because we run now on technology to be able to have development in the African Region and Ghana as a country.

Talking about the issue of cybersecurity in line with what we have now or a framework for.  Moving what you have in silos or putting personal data in silos to an ecosystem approach, it looks more at how we can trust the process with regard to how data is guarded, used, stored or who has access to it.

When we talk about cybersecurity, for young people we're active users of the Internet.  It can impact what you do even for a living.  Most of us work online and also go to school.  It is important because you wonder, beyond getting online, how are you protected?  And the trust you have in systems so that you don't have preaches and essentially run at maybe a loss if you are running a business or probably information is out there for who knows what.

If you think about silos and what it is like for Ghana for young people.  Like Miriam described, going for a driver's license or a patrol or going for a health card, you have data.  All of the places collect data.  You want to think about who ‑‑ is there a centralized place it goes to?  Why is it that every time you ask for the same data and for what reason.  Is there a way to protect it?  Are you sure all the departments collecting this data are doing what we want data to be treated like.

Then we come to the issue of privacy.  Because we heard the data protection authority in Ghana that asks that companies working with data should state what they're using the data for.  Under the broad context of protecting people's privacy, actually what you want to do as a framework, if you want to move from what you have silos now to the framework, this strategy or framework is pretty much important GDPR set a good example for us, to scale it up and be helpful for us to see what is looks like in a global space because of how we time to time engage at national and continental and global level.

Essentially, as a matter of moving forward as a way helpful for us humans, the center of technology.  Without the policy strategy, we only reinforce the injustices and biases that are offline.  It is helpful to create cyberspace and the work that we all do.  Thank you. 

>> Deniz Susar: Thank you, Lily Edinam Botsyoe.  I will turn to our online moderator, now, to summarize key points.  At the same time, if there are urgent questions, raise your hand so I can see you.  We will have time maybe for two questions.  Louise, the floor is yours, then I will turn to the floor.

>> LOUISE MARIE: Thank you very much.  It has been an enriching discussion, I thank all the panelists for bringing their perspectives.  If I had to cluster everything we heard so far into three points, we're talking about processes and institutionalization on how to better structure, you know, responses from a Government level to tackling digital innovation, you know, making different countries actually harness the power of data while at the same time considering the challenge that emerge from that process.

Just in this conversation we have right now, in process and institutionalization, some of the elements we discussed included guidance.  We heard that from the UNESCO representative.  We heard about Best Practices from Government representatives.  We talked about legislation in different countries.  We heard about Cambodia's experience as well in that sense and other countries as well.  And we talked about Digital Transformation strategies and how data governance fits into that, right? 

The second element we heard a lot over here is the notion of inequalities.  When we think about getting to a stage where Digital Transformation is achievable and countries have in place a data governance framework, we're talking about tackling the specificities and inequalities that are present in a particular country and context.  That includes, we heard over here, considering the sensitivities around how to not just ensure that access and data governance and harnessing the power of data is something that is in the city.  But that is all part of the rural areas.

So how do we connect rural and urban divides?  Right?  How do we tackle also and promote a gender sensitive lens?  Some parts of the population might benefit more from the power of data, because sometimes there is more data about them.  How do we tackle, as it was previously said also, challenges around biases.  Because the data sets that we're normally using and how Government structures data sets has something powerful to say about the outputs, right?  What are the kinds of outputs Governments are having in order to actually promote other services to population.  Is it reflective of the populations.  Is it possible to curate them in a better way and provide access to the data.

Processes and how to tackle that from an institutional model.  What is the Government view.  Is it better a legislation, toolbox guidance.  The second inequalities, how to navigate that.  The third to close my brief remark is how to think about trust, privacy, security, as part of the same ‑‑ as different dimensions of the same coin. 

I remember one of the representatives, I think from Japan mentioned that, you know, we might have focus more on innovation, but we understand that trust is the bedrock for achieving data governance and achieving the trust.  If you don't have trust, you have a fundamental problem of having everyone together believing that being connected and being online is actually something that is useful for them as individuals as well.

So trust is particle of the equation.

>> Deniz Susar: I need to interrupt you.

>> LOUISE MARIE: It is not something that hinders development, but it is about achieving and building the trust as well. 

>> MODERATOR: I think it would only be fair to get one or two questions from the floor.  Yeah, please? 

>> ATTENDEE: Thank you so much, I'm Florren Markus, an e‑Government consultant from Estonia.  I will keep it very short.  In my opinion, a data governance framework should be about improving data quality.  Should be about strengthening data interoperability, change between different stakeholders and about security and ideally minimization.  In our experience in Estonia and elsewhere, what is a strong component is the once‑only policy.  Meaning across Government authorities, there is always only one agency that holds a particular data subset.

Simple question, do the countries represented here have something like that planned?  Is that in the policy framework for them?  Thank you so much.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you for that question.  Is there any other burning question from the floor?  I don't see any.  I think we can give a chance to all panelists that want to respond to this.  Before we conclude as well, I want to remind everyone the panelists are here.  You can get their business cards.

Anyone want to respond to this question?  Yeah? 

>> Thank you very much for the question.  I want to share some few insights from Ghana, for instance, when looking at data protection and privacy it is interesting question.  If is easy to protect it.  If we share data within so many organizations in the country, for instance, sharing data from the driver's license office to the passport office to private agencies.  It is difficult to keep the privacy.  So they're enabling environment or enabling legislation in our country, then make sure that whatever data is put there is protected.  So that everybody has a privacy on his or her data.  So you don't end up losing the data or the privacy of individuals into the system where you have cybercriminals or cybersecurity issues.  Thank you very much.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you.  Yes? 

>> I think the issue of privacy and what Governments can do is a two‑way thing.  I think the discussion has to be between the citizens and the Government in terms of what is protected, how it is protected.  And where it is protected.  I think there should also be an issue of sanctions.  The GDPR is 4% turnover.  I'm not sure where it can be defined. 

>> MODERATOR: Thank you very much.

>> There is a question from online. 

>> MODERATOR: Okay.  Yeah, let's take that. 

Mr. Sok Puthyvuth, I think you would like to respond? 

>> Sok Puthyvuth: Not really respond.

The question from Estonia.  Cambodia has this principle, once and only.  We are piloting from Estonia as well.  So far, we're exploring more pilots in terms of how best to build this trust that we're talking about here.  I think at the essence of all of this Digital Transformation is trust.  Emerging ideas I want to ask is for the opinion of the panel and the Board meeting here opinion and specifically addressing to Ms. Louise Marie, what she mentioned earlier.  At the moment, the Digital Transformation what we have seen around the world there is a lot of cost attached to just protection and security.  And we keep on patching.  You know, never really solve the issue.  The new emerging ideas, I don't know 3.0 or other ideas, I don't know, more distributed model.  Are these something that Government need to be ‑‑ need to pay attention to.  You know, as what we have seen in countries like Estonia, Korea, Singapore, the current standard ‑‑ by default, in studying and support from bilateral support and Government support, moving in that direction.  Thinking ahead, looking ahead.  There are things Government should be looking further preparing for what is to come in the future.  Thank you.

>> MODERATOR: Thank you so much His Excellency, Mr. Sok Puthyvuth for that contribution.

I think with that, we can conclude our session here in this room.  There will be more data governance related sessions.  You can continue to follow those here.  Let's get a round of applause for the organizer of this session and also for all the speakers.