IGF 2022 Day 4 WS #258 Governing AI & Education Technologies Transforming Education – RAW

The following are the outputs of the captioning taken during an IGF intervention. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid, but should not be treated as an authoritative record.



>> VELISLAVA HILLMAN:  Going.  Good evening to some of us only.  Hi, everybody.  I am so glad to be presenting together with an excellent team a second time around.  Thanks, everybody, for joining us today.  Welcome to our session on governing AI and education technologies transforming education globally.

First, I would like to quickly present, I hope that you're seeing my slides just very quickly, um, a nod if there are any problems.  I would like to present my colleagues and I will line the structure of our workshop and move on to presentations and discussions as we have a full hour packed and also equally, I wish to hear from the audience.

We have Roberto Zambrana on site.  He's a 10 your teacher at San Andreas University and four other universities.  He's an international instructor and moderator for Internet Society training program.  He's also participating in the IGF policy network on meaningful seas.  We're immensely grateful to have Roberto on site to moderate our session and extend audiences offline.  As sun, we are delivering a hybrid workshop.  It's my first.  I must admit, which gives us an incredible opportunity to research and reach out to wider audience.  With us, is Amalia.  It's very late on her end and I'm so grateful she's keeping it up and strong.  Have an extra cup of coffee.  She's currently doing research for her doctorate in education with Concordia university Irvine in California.  Molly is also a teacher in science in middle school in California and is a mom of three very young children.  So praise to her.  While she delves into the challenges and experiences with advancing technologies everyday, Molly is also a first‑hand witness of how technologies impact learning, children and also her own profession as an educator.  So there is so much we want to hear from her.  Per perfect we have Dr. Samantha Kai Johnson.  Using a cognitive psychology lense, Samantha's expert and interest lie at the intersection of education and psychology.  She aims to link the areas with eLearning technologies to learning and assessment outcomes.  Her presentation will explore and integrity readiness through a global self‑lense and discuss what it means for algorithmic education systems.

Moving towards the wider context, the cost of connection, we will hear from Dr. Priscilla Gonsales, founder of an organization choose been working for 25 years on behalf of Brazil and public education.  Priscilla couldn't be present with us; however, we have her pre‑recorded presentation.  So we have the feeling she is with us and I really appreciate the work she's done.  It's a very important research that she's presenting on the substantial infrastructure concentration in Brazil and South America, more broadly by big tag companies from Silicon Valley.

And last but not least, we will hear from manual.  When school administrate ons have to choose adtech solutions they don't understand, what are the things of data being collected and how it is processed and stored.  This ignores is extended and imposed upon learners in the form of adtech solutions to impact what they don't understand because their choices haven't been considered.  Emmanuel will draw on a member of cases where critical questions emerge within the African contact.  Also similar to the north and south American, we present research from today.  But also the need for governing and scrutiny of edge tech and AI as businesses which would be the last topic I will briefly cover.  I do wish to present a very brief glossary and should begin with some kind of, you know, basic terms, which undoubtedly might evoke different interpretations and thoughts, but at least it's a starting point for our presentations.  We have the word Ed tech.  We're using it every day at least for the research we did in education content.  It stands per education technology such as applications and platforms; however, you will see from Priscilla's presentation, these are part of the stacking at the bottom the substantial presentation very big companies at play.  AI it means the ability of a computer or a rule book controlled to do tasks that are usually done by humans because they require human intelligence and discernment.  There are no AIs that can perform the wide variety of tasks an ordinary human can do.  Some AIs can match specific tasks.  In education not all techs at AI, we must be clear and no AI can completely replace a human task, at least yet.  Ad tech provider is typically private; I cannot stress enough on that.  They create, develop and sell software apps and platforms for instruction, assessment and so on.  They can be young teachers and administrators, but also I will call other stakeholder fist we consider the secondary output and product from ad tech which is education data and that leads me to determine education data itself which is data collected about students.  Data generated by student when they use ad tech.  And just a very quick word about me.  I am eye visiting fellow at the bondon school of economics.  And the founder of e EDS.  An independent research organization working at the interception of adtech, AI and education.  According to my son, I am this person holding this pen.  We really have to bring in children and young people's voices in the discussions about ad tech and AI.  Let's hear from Molly on what is every day like in schools for teacher advancing technologies.  Molly, take it away, please.

>> We can hear you now, Molly.

>> MOLLY ESQUIVEL:  Okay.  You see my slides?

>> Yes.

>> MOLLY ESQUIVEL:  Brilliant.  So I'm here to present on the what I perceive to be the invisibility cloak that Ed tech has cast upon the pedagogue process in the classrooms in the K to 12 system.  As my colleague has mentioned, I will a junior high school science teacher and I have been a science teacher for 8 years; however, I have aspired to be a teacher my entire life.

We can all in this moment think of a teacher that has impacted us positively and I like it to the weather.  You can always talk to someone about a teacher.  And ‑‑ the education that I grew up with is not the education that I'm witnessing as a teacher.  So first and foremost, I would like to acknowledge my colleagues for giving me the opportunity as a practitioner to exercise my voice on this platform because the practitioners voice is often never heard.  So first and foremost, I'd like to begin with a quote decisions and legislation are often driven by the values and ethics held by the present dominant power.  And the classroom is no different.  So the teacher is the one that gets to decide what's important based on one's moral and ethical code.  And those values lie at the heart of the classroom community.  And it's society that the eltical code builds their moral constructs and builds civilization together and we thrive under what we refer to as storm contract.  It is individuals that are willing to make sacrifices if it means that everybody gets to benefit in what we refer to as the greater good.  So student take turns, they share materials, they share space and this is all in the name of learning and education.  And so as a social process, we take responsibility and we shift from human to automation ooze we shift from human to automation, we really need to ask ourselves what do societies look like when algorithms slowly encroach on this decision making sphere?  So when teachers are no longer making 100% of the decisions with these values and ethics behind them, we really need to ‑‑ we really need to pump the brakes here and decide what are societies are going to look like as a whole.  And that brings me right here.  The pedagogyist.  You can see my slides? 

>> Perfectly, Molly.

>> MOLLY ESQUIVEL:  Perfect.  I always say teachers have a special glimpse into the future.  We get the first glimpse as emerging trends and things like style and music and lingo.  While I cannot tell you what society will look like as a whole in the future, I can tell you what a traditional U.S. junior high school classroom looks like right now.  I can tell you that data mining automated prediction and machine learning is found in every single digital tool that I currently use in my classroom.  Under traditional societal constructs and within social groupings, we can dictate what is right, wrong, acceptable, typical or not with each new integration of these AI tools or behavioral surveillance tools that evoke some paragraph lonian response and all these children are subjected to that.  And as a pedagogyist, I witness that daily.  I don't get a say as to whether these tools are used or not.  And so I'm witnessing my autonomy as a teacher slowly get taken from me over time.  All the while, I watch my students behaviors become modified by a device that's in their hand.  And so, you know, Ed tech was initially introduced as a tool to supplement my practice but now it's not so much the case.  Now my kids are being ‑‑ my students are being plopped in front of a device and this ‑‑ this Artificial Intelligence is the one that is either making the initial decision or prompting a future decision on behalf of me and my students.  And so as I said, Ed tech was initially introduced as a tool that teachers can incorporate into our instruction and creative ways yet somehow now schools are depending on it for the entire school day and even beyond with homework and textbooks at home.  In a growing body of research now, scholars are now unveiling how the integration of technology is undermining and redefining media as a pedagogyist, as a teacher.  It's robbing me of my autonomy.  And so these ‑‑ the scholars such as freezing and gluesen and Williamson and Winston Berger and ZD2020 and even my colleague Dr. Hillman, we have all explored these concepts and we highlight these perspectives and the integration of public education system of AI into public education systems.  And have really observed how the private infra‑‑ how, um, the privatization of education is taking over.  And it's imposing these constraints on the freedoms of everybody involved.  I wanted to highlight an example.  The dashboard.

And so the dashboards as you can see here, is just data.  It's just a bunch of data that's collected on students.  It was an attempt to offer convenience views on how our students were doing in a realtime performance display.  But what we're finding is these are not always neutral representations of learning.  And it's kind of a way for ‑‑ it's kind of been a way of education to kind of double down on Artificial Intelligence.  The first being AI to assets students and the second being this quote/unquote impartial dashboard meant to steer the pedagogue process.  And what it does for us is it goes back to the title of my talk here, the invisible ‑‑ the invisibility of all of it is parents and are the stakeholders don't see all of this data.  Look at all of this data, all of these charts, all of these colors.  And it's really capitalizing on our teachers and their incident need for order and control and structure and if we can walk away from getting our kids from Red to green, then we can feel like we have accomplished something when in reality have we?  It's all ‑‑ it is kind of erroneous data.  When we haven't been trained on how to use or do any of this.  We're pedagogyist.  We're experts in education.  We're not experts in statistics or analyzing data.  We're experts in teaching kids how to read and do math.  And all of this information is stored on invisible lines of digital code.  And now we're as institutions dependent on this:  I make some recommendations.  I believe that as policymakers, we real need to consider this concept of relational ethics.  We need to examine and assess how AI systems are integrated and used in education, how they will affect children and all stakeholders really in long run.  We need to consider how these predictive tools affect kids in the long run.  And further more, we really need to recognize that key stakeholders and education do we really need Artificial Intelligence.  Can we depend on the experts in their ‑‑ their pedagogyical expertise alone?  Who decided that Artificial Intelligence was of the upmost importance and needed to be in our sphere in the first place?  So discussions within AI systems Ed tech providers and other stakeholders are really needed to reach a broad consensus for standardized benchmarking and transparent conditions and obligations and transparency, accountability measures.  They need to be set up to use these algorithms and data processing appropriately, effectively, thoughtfully, intentionally and furthermore again to kind of give credit to my colleague Dr. Hillman.  She also brings up the notion that some of these providers, if not most are not even licensed to really make these judgment calls or to operate on the first place in this educational sphere themselves.  They're not the experts.  We are as the practitioner.  And we really need to establish clarity with regard to who is liable when things go wrong?  Is it going to be education?  Is it going to be the K to 12 system?  Or is it going to be those that intruded in the space in the first place Ed tech?  And so we really need to consider the long‑term effects before we just start unrolling these things into the classroom and how it is truly going to affect kids.  Kids are more than just a number.  They are people and like I said, I entered this profession admiring my teachers and the profession right now does not look anything like it did when I was a young girl admiring those that stood before me.  So, thank you.

>> VELISLAVA HILLMAN:  Thank you, Molly.  Let's hear next from Samantha on what are the premises, promises and perils for literacy and readiness in Caribbean and A46 an content ‑‑ African context.

>> Importantly when we speak about this context, I will explore and really interrogate critical reading readiness through global self‑lense and what it means for the evolution and governance of data and algorithmic decision making systems.  Before I delve into this talk, I just want to really acknowledge that when we discuss or present this broad term of the global self, there is a chance of how to include this fast array.  I just wanted to highlight that there's differences when we speak about the global self, for example, with discussions around internal differences should really play out an important part in the discussion.  But for today's context, given the time, the constraints and time, I have decided to focus on the Caribbean region.  So for example, countries such as Barbados and Jamaica for example and also two countries in Africa, Ghana and Nigeria which we have had previous interactions.  I just wanted to highlight that.

Now, when we think about the context and along with emergence of different types of technologies, there are really differences in diverse digital spaces that have been open.  As a result of that, we have an increase in misinformation, and even polarization.  So across the world what this has done has really shaped the directions of the internet and those who govern it.  And no.  There is renewed interest in the skills that children and young people require to responsibly navigate digital environments.  One area of upscaling has really taken effect isd need to focus on this concept of digital intelligence.  Now, digital intelligence comprises as you can see here on the screen 24 skills across 8 competency areas.  As visualized here on the screen, it really is an area that look at things like digital views, digital safety, et cetera as you can see.  Now, it really ‑‑ the concept of digital intelligence is recognized as a really important part of supporting future generations to really grapple with big questions and the challenges that we see being of important and emerging within the 21st century.  And one of the things that I wanted to highlight is that even though we have the different competency areas, I will focus on digital literacy which takes into consideration things like AI literacy or literacy and more specifically critical reading readiness.  And really what this construct really means is that it involves two areas.  So skills meaning the skills that students need to evaluate, interpret and analyze, but also critical reading disposition.  So one of the things in the literature especially around skills that attribute students are often so focused on the skill and we tend to not focus on the disposition of element, which is the willingness to use the reading skill.  So approach or intervention to elevate students voices in the governance and equipping them with these skills, it's important to focus on the skills component but also the disposition element, willingness to do that.

Now the internet has reached overall ‑‑ almost 50 or almost 60% of the world's population and we can see that the greatest rates of increase in penetration over the last decades are really occurring in places like Africa, middle east, Latin America and asia.

Asia being home to over half of the world's internet users.  Now, of course this has also increased beyond that time because of COVID and the requirement to access online learning spaces.  So although we have some more to achieve in terms of universal access to the Internet, these are for accessing the nations is a good news.  But I must pause here to really acknowledge that while there is an increase in usage and really this steady progression and we have sort of ‑‑ we're aging to reduce the first digital divide, access do Internet space, there continues to be the second digital divide such that countries in the global are still exponentially behind the global north countries in terms of being able to have the skills and the dispositions.  The actions that are needed to engage critically in spaces of Internet governance might look like and having these meaningful conversations about how the Internet should be governed especially given consideration to the diverse population that we realize on the Internet within the global.

So, you know, although we know that there is still a second digital divide unfortunately, one of the things in the case of the Caribbean especially when I used Jamaica Barbados, we don't have a good understanding of essentially ‑‑ we don't have a global understanding of how well students in these countries are able to read and therefore, the exTim to which they're critically able to meaningfully have sort of the skills on these positions to meaningfully contribute to conversations around Internet governance and pictured here on the careen as well as work in the assessment space and here on screen is really an overview of education systems that participate in the international computer and information literacy study which is really a global opportunity of the international association for evaluation of educational achievement.  In this study, it tends to assess students readiness to responsible I participate in the digital world including and related to students opportunities and also not necessarily opportunities but their willingness to participate in conversations related to Internet governance.  You can see here on the screen ‑‑ well, since the inception in 2013, there has been minimal participation there global context and you can see it is a very European dominated in terms of education to participate.  This is very it's further complicated by the lack of research within the global self.  As identified here in a receipt metric analysis it shows that for the most part, primarily global countries are searching about and speaking mire about this topic of digital literacy linking to internet governance.  And so we still have a gap in what the picture looks like.  Are we ready in the global and really engage in the critical discussions around Internet governance and also we need to really be elevating a bit more the conversations and the research in this space as well.  Admittedly on screen here, there are some global countries.  Indonesia they're doing really well in terms of elevating these conversations but by and large, there is a gap and a lack of representation from countries in the global.  Just to provide you with a visualization is that we do have some evidence.  We do have some evidence of students digital literacy.  So on this tool that is highlighted here, one of the things is that ‑‑ so you can essentially see that Jamaica here is really showing the case of digital literacy here.  So ‑‑ sorry.  That tool went by quickly.  Once you go on the world skills clock, the website is called the world skills clock and once you visit that website, there is collaboration with UNESCO, you get a better sense of the percentage of students who are who have ‑‑ who are digital and lit rate within their own content.  And the presentation there on the demonstration was showing everyone you can find it a bit more in Jamaica.  When I come towards the end of the presentation today, as a reminder, I alluded to the following questions and I think it's an opportune time to bring it back to the forefront.  Given all of this limitation that we have in the limitations that we have from a global self‑perspective in terms of accessing comprehensive data on critical readiness in the global self context, what do we actually know on readiness and importantly what does this mean for Internet governance?  I wanted to highlight using the context that I am familiar with.  These are just some of the initiatives that are happening within the global self context regarding readiness, understanding how students are ready to operate and contribute meaningful and critically to the conversations.  So for example, Jamaica, there is currently (?) national assessment plan and they own basic reading skills but also critical thinking and critical reading.  This was something that was done in 2020 and let it be elevated more within the Caribbean region.  I wanted to bring attention to approach it and I am doing.  I am amplify between Jamaica and Barbados and the whole name of this project is to collaborate with local organizations.  We're starting off with a metaverse and it is really having young people and secondary school students to contribute to the conversations on their own.  How should it be governed.  Make sure that when these digital technologies are infiltrated, how can we enter that Barbados has been a trend setter in this area.  They have their own Internet governance forum and it's a space to bring the Internet users together to ensure the voices of this local population are implemented into this global idea of some of the skills that students need to properly navigate the Internet spaces.  I just also wanted to highlight some of the work that I have been involved in, but also collaborating in workshops and presenting more workshops in Nigeria and u Ghana.  They're also revamping their assessment about what reading looks like through their framework.  But there are still considerations that we need to give our role and for example, currently the narrative definition at the moment and it's really working to get to ensure that this definition of what reading entails whether it takes into consideration the critical element.  And also forum such as Africtiona and the governance forum.  I am happy to see that taking place.  The first forum was held back in Nairobi in 2012.  In fact, this year one of the eras for the African internet governance forum was focused on data protection similar to things that Molly spoke about, but also focused on digital skills and capacity development and linking this into what is means to be a responsible citizen in terms of making decisions for how the Internet is governed.

So in the end, this just essentially means when students are provided with an opportunity to engage the reading and readiness skills, they are providing the 80 to acquire the skills that will enable them to critically interrogate decisions on their own.  There are recommendation systems and this is a gap in the research.  We still don't understand the evolutions of the decision making systems.  Of course, by providing them with critical readiness skills and dispositions, it provides them with access to understand the language using the space and through that, we do have greater representations and ‑‑ so as I close, I wanted to share with you just this sentiment that I've been expressing throughout my conversations on Internet governance is that meaningful, impactful and responsible Internet governance.  It cannot occur without a rerepresentive voice.  Thank you for listening today and I look forward to the discussion.

>> VELISLAVA HILLMAN:  Thank you so much, Sam.  It is crucial to hear the young people's voice and obviously have that focus on their skills and understanding what the disposition is with regards to all the technologies coming into ‑‑ into every day ‑‑ into their everyday life not only in education.

So next we are going to play the presentation of Priscilla and hear more on macro level what's happening with where exactly tech is coming from.  Concentrating especially in global south perspective with global self perspective.  Can everybody see the video?  I'm just pausing for a second.  Please do let me know do you hear the audio?

>> Yes, we can hear.

>> PRISCILLA GONSALES:  This is part of IGF2022.  I am recording this video because of time zone.  I'm in Brazil.  That is 6 hours behind.

So I will talk a little bit with you about education surveillance, in42 structure and digital ‑‑ infrastructure and digital competency.

Well, when I leave a workshop, I usually emphasize internet is a physical infrastructure made up of layers.  That is important because in educational skills, it's only considered the last layer, the most obvious layer that is the website and application that we usually access.  I like to discuss with them what is the Cloud?  And I explain that the Cloud is a metaphor.  (inaudible) cables and data centers and they always admire with this information.

When we talk about influenced in the educational records nowadays, we need to consider the new context of digital culture.  This context is totally different, don't taken by AI technologies based on data.  They discover context is completely different from 20 years ago at the beginning of the web.  More than buy or adopt product or (?) took apart feature and learning process.  Now, we have a data driven business model.  And this is new model assumed that it's real charge, but in fact, the payment is then with data.  In our case, it's true the educator data.

Education under surveillance observatory has made mapping where they made servers from public secretaries of education is taped in several levels in Brazil and South America.  Around 65% ever the new servers are under the Dominion of U.S. tech companies.  It's the issue related to data, of course, to data protection, but also to stretch the data that hasn't (inaudible) data centered improving their business model without any kind of compensation for the local institution.  So instead of using data to improve education, schools have been contributing to commercial interest.  You can access the website.  It has English and Spanish version and you can navigate between and you can see the Red dots represents the institutions who has their ‑‑ their data center and mail servers in external data centers.  In a region to the education secretaries have been using applications from the platforms.  And in showing this as an innovation, when in fact they are replacing professional development to train teachers on tools like this.

In conclusion, I would like to bring a reflection about two frequent misconceptions or misbeliefs.  The first one is related to a polarity between closing platforms and open source platforms.  As if it were enough to choose or to change it to an open source alternative.  It would be a solution, but a solution is not simple because there are ‑‑ there is an ecosystem, a huge ecosystem.  Our review show that the most famous or pre‑software like model used by online courses.  I also hosted detect data centers.  And the second is conceptions is related to usual understanding that with the education it's only about usability.  We always hear about digital competencies, digital skills, assessment tools and even open digital with educational resources.  The infrastructure layer that support all of these that view political and economical issues has been (?).

So we have some important new digital literacies to promote when we consider AI governance in this tech education context.  Be aware of the current social political economic context of digital culture.  Technology is not just a tool.  It's not natural.  The truth of technology should be a governance decision.  Creativity and autonomy instead of this how to use open standard mainly in educational field.  Human rights in the digital environment, digital rights should be an issue, a subject to teach or to discuss in schools.  Regulatory frameworks for digital citizenship, individual versus collective responsibility is important to discuss with our students that it's not enough to think before posting because there are ecosystem.  There are infrastructure system organized by platforms, by companies.  There are responsibility for these companies and for the government.  And participation.  How am I to (?) AI open data for AI and open data for good.

I would like to share with you some of our recent studies and reports.  They are ‑‑ they were translated into English.  So you can access the link and share my presentation with you.  Some articles about this problem related to data in rights in educational and root.  Importance that are run by internet committee in Brazil and part of the study.  One them discussed the problem, the conception of platforms and the second one is about the partnership disparities in the ‑‑ this kind of partnership, the contracts, the documents, the secretaries of education establish with companies.  There will be the third study related to political and infrastructure in March '23.

And this report it was launched in 2021.  It was a partnership between my university, universal (?) to discuss in the workshop how should be the new digital literacies and digital inclusion when we consider the whole temporary Brazil.  Contemporary Brazil is a mistake here.  And we can access my slides using this QR code or I can send to Velislava and she can share with you.  So I would like to thank you and have a nice panel.

>> VELISLAVA HILLMAN:  That was excellent and I like particularly the part on autonomy and managing the dependents on technologies.  And now let's hear from Emmanuel.

>> EMMANUEL CHINOMSO:  Hi, everyone.  Pleased to be here.  Good morning from Nigeria.  I would be speaking about on the topic.  Can AI injustice have unintended human foundations or foundations in the people that administer or choose the technology.  So basically what we see is that American institutions are turning into Ed tech products to skill the capacity for digital and eLearning.  But then the problem, you know, continues to exist that even though there are references well established in terms of how it helps and scare capacity and be Brazilians in difficult times like we saw in the pandemic.  One question is often frequently missing in conversations about what Ed tech adopt and how to grab this out.  Here's a question of what costs and by cost, I'm not referring to pricing or purchasing, but rather I'm talking go the potential impact and consequences.  The reality remains that when school administrators have to choose between Ed tech and they do not understand what the implications and data that's being collected and how such data is processed and stored.  What happens that this ignorant is extended and basically imposed upon letters and in a form of Ed tech solutions which impacted did not understand because their choices have not been considered.

I will quickly share studies and move to the crux of the problem and end with recommendations.  So between December 2021 and January 2022, Ed tech organization eliminates education and Ed tech solution failed because of a cyber attack that exposes millions of users including 800,000 current and former students across 700 public schools in New York City.  It eliminates many things.  It even included information about students tardiness readings, migrant, behavior and descriptions of disabilities.

In a second case stud I between late 2020, even until early 2022, students, faculty and alumni have continues to speak out about some issues relating to Proctoral.  It's a popular Ed tech solution that is in user across America and in the Caribbean.  They range from issues of invasion of privacy, biased against students of color, bias against students with accessibility needs and divergence and anxiety.  Harm to transgender students against a list of other issues.  And eye final case study these do with the rise and protest against Ed tech solutions we have begun to see emerging in digital spaces.  This has been described first like Ed tech resistance and Ed tech activity and Ed tech lash.  What is the crux of the problem?  You see the global transition to online learning and the aftermath of the pandemic made businesses and investors to see lucrative opportunities and business potentials.  Many Ed tech companies and solutions began to spring up, but then the rush to bring the solutions to market so that investors can begin to receive returns on the investments meant that many of them were not properly built or poorly bell and did not admer to some of the best practices around cybersecurity and data privacy.  And, you know, a number of therm were not tested as well.  Regulators were not quite prepared to deal with the sudden flood regarding the time and number of the products.  They made it to market without regulatory scrutiny.  In a world where decisions and actions were analyzed, no one wants their behavior insdon't records from high school to end up in the hands of employers recruiters several years later.  The consequences can be dominating especially as we begin to raise questions and disability and migration and various other adjoining issues.

Now, we are regulation is ineffective and basically absent for most jurisdictions or many I would say.  The impact is more (?).  I will move forward from here.  I think the first thing we need to do is have regulators and government security experts begin to take a closer look at the Ed tech solution we have on the market today so they can advice administrators accordingly.  Just like the U.S. FTC with Ed tech recently, I think that was in the U.S. if I remember correctly.  Actually, some of this Ed tech solutions that we have seen whoa would be involved with the writers skill.  Also we need to have educational administrators begin to seek professional help.  Choosing Ed tech solutions should not only be a question of pedagogue and learning capabilities that this solution provides.  Ed tech educational administrators now need to seek professional help from security experts and IT experts.  They need to understand the implications of how these Ed particular solution is performing.  Pedagogic affordances of these solutions we need to understand how am they bring about consequences in the long run that can be unpleasant or retributed.  Teachers and alumni many years later and then finally, we also need to allow to see regarding Ed tech solutions that have been chosen for their use.  We discussed this at length in the receipt paper that was published last year with a colleague of ours.  We will put to the link in the chat and then we hope you would engage further from here.  Thank you so much.  I will give the floor back to VELI.

>> VELISLAVA HILLMAN:  Thank you.  We have very few minutes left.  I appreciate everyone's presentations.  Before we get into some Q&A, I wanted to quickly mention that yeah.  In the rush of providing Connectivity and access to Internet, it is also important to kind of, you know, do this with critical perspective in mind.  Yes.  And really think about governing and putting some pressure measures to ensure all risks relating to datafication, surveillance, determinant, they will swoop along the way.  Education is not about scaling or mixing up existing id tech as we heard from Molly.  We do need the perspective of young people as well the way we heard from Samantha and from Emmanuel as well.  I just wish to mention a quick analogy, a very simple metaphor with regards to governance of Ed tech and AI coming into education.  It is, you know, when we want to protect children from false driving cars on the roads, imposed policies rules and procedures and we put in speed cameras.  And the speed cameras are a way to monitor and control all the drivers observe the limitations.  In education, there is neither speed cameras at the begin stage nor in the market as they operate.  So to monitor control the sector, let's think about installing the property speed cameras so to speak.  Beyond that, if we have to also address, you know, from the governance of education data, what sort of data is being collected?  What is the appropriateness?  What is the purpose and the ‑‑ what is really the need and whom does this benefit?  Can we put proper ‑‑ appropriate measures to include whatever data is being collected, there is a substantial necessity for using that and for industry, we also need to think in terms of governance with regards to, you know, make data processing observable.  We need more transparency on that.  And then from educational perspective, we need to continue to introduce where it hasn't learning and teaching data use and purpose and literacies.  So I want to thank everybody for the excellent reports.  A lot of food for thought and questions.  I wanted to pass on to see if anyone from his side has any questions for the panelists?

>> Thank you very much, VELI.  Anyone want to intervene or make a comment or question in the room?  Okay.  I think it was clear.  Do you want to make a question?

>> I really enjoyed the presentation made by the lady who spoke about education and contemporary.  I think the session was ‑‑ I told her there are many things that she shared.  I would be very interested to find if she can share more information and maybe contemporary African countries since this session was about global south, the example she made was from only present.  It would be very interesting to learn about the more case studies from especially the African continent.  That's my contribution.

>> Thank you very much.  Yeah.  I think back to you, VELI.

>> VELISLAVA HILLMAN:  There was a lot of input from your end for the African ‑‑ yeah, within the African context on digital literacies.  Would you like to make a comment on that or perhaps share some more of your research?

>> Yes.  So in terms of the ‑‑ the initiatives that are based in Africa, I'm quite excited to see this emerging case as well especially so many thing I mentioned.  Even the internet forum that's happening, African Internet forum that has emerged since 2012 in Kenya and was held this year in Malawi.  So one of the ‑‑ Malawi.  So one of the things that I am pledging is not only the focus on the digital schools because there are areas that have been described in the African Internet Governance Forum was really our own affordable meaningful access, cybersecurity and also digital infrastructure and one of the things or events that proceeded the African internet governance forum, it was proceeded by three events.  First the school, jolt Africa and IGF, governance forum and the parliamentarian symposium.  You have this broad form happening and I am particularly keen to see what will emerge from the spaces of the university and young people.  As part of this, as part of the forum within African Internet governance forum, you can see a commitment where they're participating on norms and regulations and policies and standards and protocols within Africa for data protection and overall governance.  There has been a Malabo convention.  It really envisions Victoria.  Calls for a more harmonized which protection all people from processors and data.  I am excited to see what's happening in the case, young people ‑‑ there voices will be it is more meaning around these decisions around Internet governance.

>> VELISLAVA HILLMAN:  As we're reaching towards the end, I see how does one prepare learners for critical disposition?  That was one of my questions I had put down to ask for later.  It is a question that we brought in on the panel, you know, the perspective the and the research from digital technologies are becoming part in parcel of the learning educational process and the pedagogical process.  We're seeing negative aspect that we look out for which should be a kind of a model to both to look for better ways for better governance when we're introducing technologies elsewhere where they're still not ubiquitous.  I guess we're out of time.  I really appreciate Roberto's help on site and I wanted to say thank you to all the panelists and our audience.  I look forward to Connecting and I hope that we can have more opportunities to meet at future IGF.  Thanks, everybody.

>> Thank you very much, VELI.  Thank you, everyone.  It is closed now.

>> Thank you.  Bye‑bye.

>> Thank you.

>> Thank you.