SOP 62: Guideline of Open Knowledge Environment (OKE) in the Developing Countries

Sixth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum

27 -30 September 2011

United Nations Office in Naiorbi, Nairobi, Kenya

September 29, 2011 - 9:00am


The following is the output of the real-time captioning taken during the Sixth Meeting of the IGF, in Nairobi, Kenya. Although it is largely accurate, in some cases it may be incomplete or inaccurate due to inaudible passages or transcription errors. It is posted as an aid to understanding the proceedings at the session, but should not be treated as an authoritative record.


>> Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.  Welcome you to attending our workshop on the OKE.  My name is Gao Xinmin, Vice President of the Internet Society of China.  Actually, we organized this workshop for China Association for Science and Technology.  I'm also a member of consultive committee for ICT for UN under CAST.  So the CAST asked me to monitor the session.

As you know, the OKE is Open Knowledge Environment.  I don't know whether you are familiar with this definition of the OKE.  Afterwards, I ask the Professor Liu Chuang, she's the expert in this area, what is ‑‑ how to define the architecture of the OKE.

My understanding is building the OKE environment, the aims of building this OKE is it promotes the universal access of this tool's scientific knowledge and the technical informations and also encourage the creation and the dissemination and the utilization of the technical information and scientific knowledge for all.

So I think it is a very important area that the Internet can play very crucial roles.  As you know, the Open Knowledge Environment is based on the Internet and can be used ‑‑ and can be used for all aspects, including research institutes, universities, civil societies, even some communities.  So that's the aspect we have for some progress already done, particularly in several countries, including China.

But still we are facing a lot of challenges, particularly for developing countries.  We have some difficulties to deliver some broadband access, and also we have seen some difficulties for standardization of the information and the technology information and knowledge.

So our workshop is aimed to identify some issues in this area we have to solve and also we open a platform for all, which ‑‑ who are interested in these areas to make some contribution and ideas, how to promote OKE development.  This workshop is organized by CAST.  The first workshop, it was held in Egypt I think 2009.  We have very success discuss with all the participants on this issue.  The second time is last year.  We discussed some of the principles which were very important for guiding the building of the OKE, particularly in developing countries.  This time, the third workshop on OKE in IGF process, we proposed a draft of the guideline or principle for building OKE in developing countries.

So I think today we invite some experts and distinguished guests are here.  I hope they will give you a lot of informations and ideas and some proposals.  May I suppose, first, the panelists introduce themselves and then you can know what their background and their professional.  Maybe I want to start from left side, Professor Liu Chuang.

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: I'm name is Dr. Liu Chuang, with Professor of Institute of Geography and Natural Resources with Chinese Academy of Science.

>> GAO XINMIN: Ms. Ana Cristina Neves.

>> ANA CRISTINA AMOROSO NEVES: I'm the head of International Affairs of the Digital Society Agency from the Ministry of Education and Science and we're responsible for the coordination of Information Society Policy in Portugal and, of course, we have these Open Knowledge Environment as one of our objectives.  Thank you.

>> GAO XINMIN: Thank you.  And Dr. Tao Xiaofeng.

>> DR. TAO XIAOFENG: Actually, my name is Tao Xiaofeng and I study wireless communications.  Also, I do some stuff on the Internet.

>> GAO XINMIN: Okay.  Thank you.  Today's workshop, we will process as follow:  First of all, I would advice Professor Liu Chuang maybe some introduction on the Open Knowledge Environment.  I think what is OKE definitions?  What is the objectives and the scopes.

Then follow the Professor Liu, then we go to Professor Tao.  Then we ask Ana to give us some ideas and some case studies and practice in protocol.  Then Professor Liu will also give you some introduction of the particular experiments on these areas.  She has involved a lot of projects internationally.  Afterwards, we will open discussion for audience and also we open floor for remote participants.

Hearing no objection, I will start on this programs.  Now Professor Liu, you have floor.

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: Thank you.  First of all, I would like to give a brief introduction about the objectives and the scope of Open Knowledge Environment in bridging the digital divide.  So objectives, why we propose this idea was ‑‑ or this proposal is first of all, we would like to call worldwide awareness for establishing an Open Knowledge Environment in bridging the digital divide for innovative research, for education and for society.  That's like Professor Gao, it's Open Knowledge Environment for all.

Not only according to awareness is worldwide, but we would like to work together in the common understanding in the development and the principles of Open Knowledge Environment for bridging the guide and then we provide a practical guideline for OKE, case studies from practices, experiences and the progresses.

And the reason why we see that here is we would like to give some ‑‑ provide some recommendations to the governmental and the intergovernmental decision makers to approve integrated Internet governmental system, from local, national to the global size in bridging the digital divide.  I believe everybody agree this.  There are so many levels and so many organizations, they have their own policies.  How make these policies to integrate together and to get to common goals?  So this is the changing for all of us.  So we would like to provide some recommendations.  So this one of the objectives.

The scope.  So we are not all ‑‑ of course, nobody can do everything, but OKE, we would like to name it, but definitely we have a scope.  The scope is integrating openly available teach knowledge, date and the resources with tools online for the creation of new knowledge, it's innovative for the development.  So definitely understand that we need to integrate openly available.  That is this the first word, "open."  And mostly we focus on the digital resources.  The resources is not like a general, natural resource, but it's digital knowledge, digital data and digital information.  And not only this, but also together with collaborative communication about tours online.  So all of this is integrated together, so it's available to a new knowledge of creation.

So this is the scope.  So that ‑‑ I think that there are two workshops last year and the year before last year, we have the common understanding about this.

>> GAO XINMIN: Okay.

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: Thank you.

>> GAO XINMIN: Thank you, Professor Liu.  Very clear objectives and scope.  I think I would invite Professor Tao to give us some information on the draft of the principles of the OKE for development strategies.

>> DR. TAO XIAOFENG: Sorry.  I'm a Professor of Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, and part of CAST, China Association for Science and Technology.  I report principle of Open Knowledge Environment for developing country.  This is a draft version.

This is the outline.  First, I will introduce some background and second one is opportunities and the challenges for developing country.  It is a draft of our principle of OKE for developing countries.  As said in Geneva, declaration of principles, we recognition that education, knowledge, information, and communication are the core of home and progress, information communication technology, ICT, are in all aspects of our lives.  Part of the information technology revolution, you can distribute between the develop and the developing country and different societies.

So we are trying to bridge this digital divide into a digital opportunity for all, particularly for those who risk being behind and being further marginalized.  The conception of establishing an Open Knowledge Environment, OKE was the advanced ICT is inherited from these principles.

This is background,  Professor Gao introduced.  Before this conference, we have two conference before.  One was 2009, and second was 2010.  In the first meeting, it was proposed that technology is a key resource which is successful to every scientific worker.  Meanwhile, open knowledge also means a lot of challenges, such as SAT, hardware, information properties, closed information environment.  In the second OKE workshop, in the year 2010 is, some principle of OKE, Internet Governance was discussed.  The workshop receive some positive response, and the participant are highly interested in several practical OKE cases such as observation data, the public digital laboratories, the international corporation are sharing more about communication.

One of the objective of OKE is to contribute to the reduction of the digital divide, the rapid development of ICTs, bring some new opportunities for developing country.  The Internet brought possible opportunity of making new forms of worldwide knowledge is spanned by broken barriers of space and time.  Driving the control of technology can greatly promote the economic and associative development, however, there are some others.  There's still an imbalance brought by ICT, and they are still facing a digital divide.

According to World Bank in Africa, access to a reliable supply of electricity is a general problem, but it's particularly severe in rural area because of the difficulty of the connection to national electric grid.  There's a general lack of home resource capacity to provide ICT training and equipment services.

Technology integrate ‑‑ integration that effective platform due to insufficient ICT support and they face many barriers to acknowledge digital resources, including the barriers of technology, such as technical, such as intellectual property rights, IPR problems.  There are three main challenges, I think, for developing country so far in taking advantage of ICT development to access technologies.

The first one is insufficient access to ICT.  Second, there's a mechanism of technology integration as a platform.  The third is confronting significant barriers to access digital resource.  In order to have developing country, it's better cast China association, it propose the following principles, building infrastructure with help from government.  Integration platform by applying new ICTs, improving the source access technology by capacity building.

Here is the first one, assistance from the government.  Encourage developed countries to give more technical support to developing country, on infrastructure building, along with more support to digital technology sharing for innovative research education and society.

Developing and developed corporation will mature and a platform to better success to update technology.  Support the creation and development of the digital poverty library and achieve services, including developing a global understanding of the need of hybrid laboratories by checking the strategies and the legislation of national laboratory and the strengthening the worldwide collaboration between laboratories.

This is the second suggestion.  Application of new technologies.  Salute technology, it's applied in traffic, haircuts, healthcare, financial/industry, next generation worth net work.  Heterogeneous technology, ad hoc sensor network and new technologies such as M2M, cloud computing, network convergence will play a key role in the future of ICT.  Actually, this is my research area.  With this new technology, the world is becoming more connected, while the distance shrink.

We should take full advantage of this technology to build an OKE platform for openness, security, quality, protection of intelligent ‑‑ intellectual properties.  And the data dissemination requires the command of new technology and the digital resource and the transformation maturation and utilization:

This is the their aspect.  Capacity building.  Enable the application of ISAT for local communities, especially those rural and undeserved area and promote the production of useful and socially meaningful content to benefit all.  Design new forms of ICT networking which links education, training, research, institution, among developing country, and the country with economies in transition.  Develop distant education, training, and other form of education and training as part of capacity building program.  Giving special attention to developing country, he specially to enlist the develop country RTCs, in different level of home resource development.

Therefore, the principle has been put in several practical cases so far.  It's aimed at improving the assimilation of open knowledge, to eliminate the digital divide and to make sure all human beings have the free right to technologies.

Thank you very much.

>> GAO XINMIN: Thank you, Professor Tao.

I see the draft that Professor Tao present.  He try to summarize all the major challenges and also the main proposals for government and for civil societies, for private sectors, what they can do for this areas.  So actually, Professor Tao, he's a famous professor in China on the new generation wireless network, 4G and beyond 4G.  He wrote a book.  If you are interested, you can ask him to give you some copy.

>> DR. TAO XIAOFENG: Thank you.

>> GAO XINMIN: I think it's very important technology.  Afterwards we can discuss about these principles, the draft of the principles, yeah.

Professor Tao summarized the major challenges is sweet, difficulties for access into the infrastructure, and second one, lack of the development of the platform as the integrator of the technology and the information.  The third one is the barrier to existing a lot of barrier to access digital contents, such like some standardizations, intellectual property, prices and so on.  Yeah.

So we can discuss those issues whether it is a major issue, we ‑‑ we have to think how to solve, how to think in a way to solve this problem.

Now I think we invite Ms. Ana Neves make a presentation.  I think I remember last year.  Ana give us a very impressive presentation.  She told us what happened to protocols in this areas.  Very impressive.  So I think maybe Ana will give us some new developments these areas.

Ana, you have the floor.

>> ANA CRISTINA AMOROSO NEVES: Thank you so much.  Well, in fact, it is a pleasure to be here, even if it is interesting that we didn't attract so many people because, in fact, this is a very, very important theme that it should be it of the interest of other stakeholders, but I think that we have other very important workshops.  So it is a pity because what the Professor Liu and Professor Tao said, it's really important, and I will try to continue with this line of presentation.

So they said that the creation of new knowledge, and to make it available openly through collaborative tools online is a goal, is exactly our ‑‑ our policy, and what I will try to present to you is exactly on this page.

Then there was this idea, the lack of the mechanism of knowledge integration as a platform, the confronting barriers to access digital resource.  Again, I found this very, very important, as, again, it is one of hour goals, and to enhance corporation between developed and developing countries through different digital platforms is exactly what this kind of Internet Governance Forum can offer us, because we can change some best practices.

And finally, I found very interesting this sentence "the production of useful and socially meaningful content to the benefit of all."  So I will start my presentation.

So my presentation will be, of course, on the Open Knowledge Environment, the creation of these Open Knowledge Environment, and what we are trying to do with the Portuguese‑speaking countries.  It's not only with the African speaking countries.  It includes Brazil already as well, and so we are trying to build that to set up these kind of tools through ICT and some tools online.

So we have these four main titles, the capacity building of technicians to support infrastructure and services.  So it is something that we offer and that is building up by our FCCN, as you can see the Foundation of National Scientific Computing.  So we give some training and this is part of our capacity building policy.

We have created the open access repository, the Portuguese one, and now we are enhancing it by sharing it and creating mirrors and backup systems and integration of search engines for scientific and integration purposes.  So what it does, it speaks at the exchange of information between the researchers of these different countries.  So when we have these mirrors and these backup systems, it's not only a good tool when we have a problem, earthquake or something like that, but it is very important as well as a tool to work in a speedier way.

Then I will talk a little bit about the access to digital scientific libraries with content from main international publishers and finally the access to large scale scientific voluntary computing.  That is a very interesting experience.

So the open access repositories.  Last year in Vilnius, we presented our portion.  Now we are trying to open it and to have cooperation with Brazil, Angola, Mozambique and our aim for the time being is to invest into the Portuguese language and to invest in the research papers in Portuguese and the Internet.

So this corporation, it includes the creation and the management of the national open access repositories of scientific and educational content, including the adoption of content preservation protocols for disaster recovery or compatibility with technological evolution.  Portugal has several universities and higher education institutes involved.  Then there's a sharing of mirrors, backup systems for disaster recovery and better access dissemination in the countries, continents because it also includes the speeding up of the information.

Finally, under this chapter, I would like to call your attention for the integrated search engines for all the countries and it is already available between the Portugese repository and the Brazilian repository, that is dot‑br.  So it's possible to exceed to all research papers proceedings, articles, that would deposit there.

We have another possibility that is access to subscreen the digital scientific library.  And this includes the cooperation with the Cape Fear and we are in negotiations with Angola.  So this is access to digital scientific library, with content from nine international publishers.  So Portugal subscribes to what we call the big deals.  More than 17,000 international journals, 18,000 ebooks, 12,000 proceedings transactions, Titles and international editors.

We facilitate these deals to these countries that can benefit from the Portuguese deals and the technological platform because it's possible for them to exceed or partially exceed to these scientific library and this is already provided to the Cape Fear University since 2009 and it's really a success.

The access to large scale voluntary ‑‑ oops.  Oh, okay.  Okay.  Access to large scale voluntary computing.  So the personal communities donated for scientific purposes is an affordable means to perform large‑scale scientific commutations through distributed computing techniques.  Portugal and Spain have incorporations such an infrastructure, which is being made available to other countries already to Argentina, Mexico, Brazil, Cuba and it's under preparation.

So before that, let me just ‑‑ to elaborate a little bit more on what I'm saying about these.  I don't know in you understood the concept.  So any user who has a personal computer in any part of the world can donate time of his computer when he's not using it.  So if you want to be part of it, you just have to go to the portal that is or and you are part of this program, and when you are not using your PC, your PC is being used for ‑‑ for ‑‑ for research.

So recently a very good example that I would like to raise here is that for Alzheimer's‑related diseases, it was possible to test the possibilities of certain molecules for pharma medicines.  So 7 million trials were made through this system.  So using all of these computers to screen the molecules that are available to use towards new pharma.  So through this exercise it was possible to understand which molecules we should use to make some medicine to some Alzheimer's related diseases.

And so now we have the map.  What you see is you have Portugal and you have Spain and you have the platforms in Portugal and you have the platform in Spain and then you have some bullets.  There are certain bullets that are not there.  It means that our citizens that gave their time, but the time is not at the certain level.  So we didn't include them.

Then we have the blue ones that over a very appropriate and good time to these exercise, and then ‑‑ and we know exactly where they are.  So we know their geoposition and then we have the yellow ones that can be in any part of the world, but they didn't say where they are.  But still, they are part of this experiment.

So there's the link where the cities can resist and be part of this exercise.  And when you see, like a smoke, it's the flow of information that is coming from a PC, from a personal computer of ‑‑ of a citizen.  They are all going to the platform in Spain, but this is 24 hours a day.  So you ‑‑ you have all of this flow of information coming from all these PC, all of these personal computers and from all ‑‑ any part of the world and it goes to these platforms and it is incredible how many data you can get from these online tool, and so we are working already with the university to set up a platform like this.

So any question, don't hesitate.  Thank you.

>> GAO XINMIN: Thank you Ana.  Good progress.  You are from protocol to practical speaking.  It is very, very big steps.

Maybe we ‑‑ what else could the Professor Liu makes a case study and then we are back to discuss principle.  Okay?  Professor Liu.

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: Thank you.  My presentation in this is ‑‑ no, the next one.  No, this one.  Practical guideline.  Yeah.  Yes.  Okay.  Yeah.

I would like to follow Ana's presentation and I think Ana give a very excellent case in ‑‑ in the ‑‑ in the ‑‑ with the other developing countries.  My practice is Asia.  So I would like to provide this experience as a practical guideline of Open Knowledge Environment in developing countries, take each case as an example.

I would like to ‑‑ for the total of seven stamps, this is actually in regard to experience, some from successful experience, some from fair, however, even fair I think is the experience, and the first one is called worldwide and nationalwide awareness and the resources.

So in the developing countries, for example, in China, then together with the ‑‑ you could not reform.  Everybody think money is good before the reform compared, before reform.  But whether they have all the information or the knowledge, of these reforms, it change money and eventually we change money so people have different ideas.  In this case, several scientists in China, they ‑‑ they just want to ‑‑ if you give me, I give you the data to you.  This is very ‑‑ this is very normal several years ago, but then later, the scientists think this is no good in China.  So there's national aware in China and national aware in the international organizations.  First off political action is code data.  This is the national organization ‑‑ it's a national committee on data, for science and technology, and then the CODATA establish a working group in the year 2000.  Then to the year of 2002, they updated the working group into the other group.  That means the CODATA sees developing countries as a priority.  So each two years this task was updated and also seed money was launched.

And then in another international awareness is GAID.  It follows the Geneva and the Tunis, and it's ICT and the development and then there's the new project that's called expertise.  That ‑‑ that's ‑‑ it takes a developing country as a very important issue and they call the project e‑SDDC.  So this was launched in 2007, and this also got supported from Chinese academy for sciences, and then also science and council of Asia, which lead to the Open Knowledge Environment, and a joint project in 2008.

And also international academy of panel establish the OKE project in 2009.  So all of this international organizations, they pay more and more attention to the developing countries.  So this is good.  So I thought ‑‑ I think if you ‑‑ if for developing countries people wanted to get the support, and want to get good pay attention, you definitely need to call worldwide attention.  So this is the first stamp.

And not only worldwide, but national wide also is very important.  China, as I said, China has the national scientific sharing program in 2003.  A big finding is launched.  So they continually support this, not only in China, South Africa and the center of technology and the data sharing program in 2005 and Thailand and other countries too.

And so we see this and we call worldwide, national awareness and the resources and more and more to be launched.

And the second is ‑‑ the second stamp is how can we work together?  How can we work on this with support?  And we need a strategy.  We establish that win/win strategy.  So we added four sentences.  One is networking.  We are to decentralize the network to network.  Why we call it decentralize?  You know, in China, we have people very like the center.  For example, world data center, some study center.  So the center is people are in favor.

More on the people, I know they in the center.  So we definitely need to call all people, not only a group, so that we call that ‑‑ to decentralize networks to networks in the developing countries and it has the open policy.  Not only is the information open, and open knowledge, but we encourage innovative use of data and ‑‑ so data mining means creative knowledge.  So it means that we are not only use but we use this with knowledge, with the import, the knowledge is import.  So there's a new knowledge created.  This is very important in developing countries.

So the development of an entity.  Not only is the development is entered, but the development is a win/win together.  So in this way, this is a strategy for our cooperation.  And then there's so many things we ‑‑ we needed to do.  So how we ‑‑ what they put this through the priority, a first, a second, a third.  So we take the development as a priority, and the application ended up in OKE.  You know, we know this, and sometimes it's how much money do you need?  We always say, never enough.  So remember, we will never have enough money, but we have a limited resources but we definitely need to put something with a priority.

So what we do in developing countries, we would like to say, our experience is application oriented and application is a priority.  We take a development as priority.  There are three more important one.  Priority reduction in developing a country is absolutely, it's very important, and the second one is disaster mitigation, and the third one is the public health.  So this is for developing countries.  It's a very, very important need.  And then there are several ‑‑ there are several agencies, would like to support these activities, however, no one can finish them, can make this all done.  So the methodology for this, our experience is development of joint action in the programs.

So we joined programs, for example, we have CODATA/ISCU group, we have GAID, and e‑SDDC.  So we have these organizations get together, and we launch this program in 2007.  Then we have a working international workshop in Shanghai and also the joint.  We also in 2009, we have a training workshop in ‑‑ in Mongolia.  It was supported by the Asia Pacific Network for Global Change and our group.  So we definitely join the action.  It's more productive and more efficient.

And for developing countries, we believe the training workshop and the round table within a certain time period is a very important stamp.  And especially for capacity building, and the new technology transformation.  So we have several training workshop in Mongolia, in China, and several 12 countries from 12 countries in Africa and Asia come to China.  So we develop the training program.

And from the training program, we know to understand to each other more, and not only, try for technology, new technology.  Not only to know people, but we also to know this new ability is created in the developing countries.  This is more important than the money input only.

So then we put this so but how no guarantee the knowledge and the information and the data is accurate, security and the protection of intellectual property.  This is actually like a brother in digital knowledge.  We definitely need to balance this.  We need to open the information ‑‑ the information open to knowledge, however, we also need protection of intellectual property, how to do this?  We created for scientists, we need to credit this record, and we definitely need to credit the contributors.  And they are paid for the accuracy and the security.  So this is a national security, maybe it's not public available, but they know, and they respond by the authors.  So this is another important issue.

So how do ‑‑ we set up the system in the one time, or one month, fine.  How to make this attendance a long‑term attendance?  A long‑term sustainable development?  So we need continually created new ideas, and long term, we need a code, international level, national level, for the long‑term archives.  This is a long‑term archive and open services.

And this is the experience.  What do we have during the last five years?  So these are two joint initiatives.  One is ‑‑ one is ‑‑ how to this?  Okay for disaster mitigation and environmental studies and the other is digital museum.  And okay for disaster mitigation, Ana says they also have disaster and I think disaster is crucial issues, not only for the developing countries, but for all human.  So ‑‑ and I think the expert from Japan that we have at the workshop on the disaster, I think that's very interesting.  So disaster is ‑‑ is very, very ‑‑ and we suffering from the earthquake in China.  I think several other countries the same thing.

So how can we work on this?  So we draw and develop the quick response system for inter‑Asia, supported by south ‑‑ by the CAST council of Asia.  And so we work with them in several other countries and they join us this year.  We pay more attention to the developing country and the very poor countries.  So for the earthquake disaster, so we have ‑‑ we developed a very quick response and the knowledge and supported you ‑‑ sorry.  Oh, my goodness.  How to go back?

So this is from Chinese Academy of Sciences team.  The second day we got the images from remote sensing, in the area of the earthquake and within two days we develop several data sets in the less than one meter resolution in the area.  For example, this is the slab system.  This is a campus, and also collapsed the buildings.  It was a 6.1‑meter resolution.

So then we are quick to report.  In one week, we got a response from the ‑‑ the head ‑‑ the head of the UN and he's very, very urgent to get that information and gave us a very quick response.  And then we ‑‑ we give them all other related GIS mapping and data cites to support them.  Not only this we also posted the U.N. data in New York City.  So we also know the urgent need for this kind of information and we are very involved in the recovery.

So these are very applied and this is another case.  This is from Dr. Tomoko Delco.  He's a young scientist and he give ‑‑ she gave this very detailed research and presentation in the Kagoshima disaster.  She gave a very detailed data analysis and tool, one kilometer ‑‑ by one kilometer grid resolution mapping and the two provided this information to ‑‑ to everybody and analysis of how this nuclear radiation affected the wildlife species.  And then the very ‑‑ it's early, early time to send it to the ‑‑ to the ‑‑ to Japan government for the rescue.

And also we have several others and very good experience.  For example, the lake in the Himalayas.  There was a lady and her name is a chair member also in Japan, and on a very good research and this is based on Open Knowledge Environment, to make this valuable data available.

This is the sign for the research.  We have another one.  This is a museum.  This is a program between the CODATA and the IGU, it's the international geographers, and there's several others, the universities, the international organizations and so on.  And this ‑‑ the Geo Museums, there are several holes, digital geographers holes, and also international contribution program on hole, and cultural hole, and so on.  And here we will give you an example for the international cooperation program hole.  For example, this is in the first IPY, probably a year in 82, and 883, this is indicated by the German and this is at the equivalent and this is a rule and this is a person, a contributor and this is counted.

So from this, you can have the money, there's the background, the stories.  This is the program the first IPY.

And this is the second IPY.  This is issued by Russia.  This was issued in 1932 and they see what this is the shape, this is one, and our photo is an application in this program, and so on there.

And then this is a Russia program and a US program, in this time, and in ‑‑ in your ‑‑ in the US, also issued the stamps to recognize this is a very important issue and the second IPY and so on.  And the satellites from the very beginning, first the satellites are in Russia and the second is Botanica two and then this one is by US and so on.  So they are all of this ‑‑ so all of this is very, very, valuable information inside.  So this could be in the ‑‑ in the ‑‑ so I said this is full of information of historical dimension of earth's discoveries.  It is a special platform for research on science and history and the earth science, it's a multiple contract and valuable heritages advantage for education and they bring earth science into people's daily life and not only for the ‑‑ the professor but also for young people and also older generations.

So ‑‑ and I think this could be a platform for the world data and the world people.  This is another example for the Open Knowledge Environment.

So I think I give the two experience as an example and give practical guidelines, why and how we make this success.  Of course, we have some failure experiences also.  There may be ‑‑ there's many of this, but if interested, we definitely would like to communicate with you, share my experience to you.  Thank you.


>> GAO XINMIN: Thank you, Professor Liu, give us very interesting and plenty of the experience, successful experience in his study.

I think we are still ‑‑ we have some time to open discussion on the principles, draft principles presented by Professor Tao, otherwise we can ask some questions of our panelists Ana and Professor Liu Chuang.  Now, I would like to invite all the audience present here to ask any question or make some comments.  Who will be?

Okay.  Please.

>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: Thank you very much.  I'm from Kenya.  I just wish to ask one question.  How will the product or the program scale up?  Because in Kenya, the main challenge is the accessibility, and it has been stated early that also programs or projects that was requested, maybe someone add a piece of that is not using a contribute.  How do we wish to add that?  That's also the only thing that can help us because if you have the information and you don't have the tools, the information will not be useful.  So I will just ask that question to the Professor Liu.  How will the project scale up in one or two year years to come?

>> GAO XINMIN: Professor Liu.

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: So I think this is a good question.  We are also facing the same problem.  We try to call awareness to people, to contact people.  So keep contact of people, and keep making noise to them, and then let them awareness, awareness.  That's the first step, make people awareness you.  And then don't just say once or two or thrice, once again, until success.

>> GAO XINMIN: I think Ms. Ana give us a very good example to build some open platform.  Can use the computer resources from the end users and from providers and also to ‑‑ I think it can collect a of resources.  Maybe Ms. Ana can add something.

>> ANA CRISTINA AMOROSO NEVES: Well, you said exactly what it is.  It is a platform that is for large‑scale research, or it can be for even not so large, but it's more useful when you want to ‑‑ when you are using metadata.  And so you can create this platform anywhere, because we are working on an open source and so this can be very, very easily replicated and the good thing is that it's very inclusive, this project, because everyone, all around the world can be part of it.  

It's offering the time of his personal computer for advancing the research and for the time being, we are, as you successful experience, we have start in Portugal and Spain, and we are trying to get in Cape Vert and any center ask these platforms to use the platform to send the data of these specific project and then this project will be enhanced through the sending of the project to the several computers, and then the ‑‑ the computers, they ‑‑ they start to screen the data and then they go back to the platform.

And then the research is continued because then the researcher or the ‑‑ or the research center is ‑‑ is now available to make better use of the data that it had previously because now we had smaller data and more oriented data for this objective.  So it's a very inclusive project and besides inclusive, it can be done everywhere.

>> GAO XINMIN: Thank you.  Any question?  Please.

>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: Thank you very much.  I'm called Edward.  This is a question I pose to Ana, basically about this idea of sharing computers.  I find it very, very interesting, but I'm a bit concerned about privacy and security.  What are you doing to ‑‑ to actually protect your data from maybe ‑‑ from attacks from other computers, someone who pay have a virus or a bug on your computer and you are using your own computer to process data out.  This may cause a great problem.  What are you doing to counter that?

>> ANA CRISTINA AMOROSO NEVES: It's a good question.  I cannot tell you exactly how the system is protected, but it is protect.  So regarding the privacy of data, of course, all of this data, for instance, what I said about the 7 million trials.  So it was about as far as I remember, 2.5 million molecules that were screened.  So it is not such a big problem when you are screening these molecules through your personal computer, because what we are trying to do here is really to see which molecule is good to make new medicine for the ‑‑ as for this disease.  Of course, there are other diseases or other projects that are very sensitive.  I cannot tell you exactly what the intellectual property policy is used, but we have one and the security is ‑‑ is one of the main ‑‑ the main things that is issued.

If you want, I give you more information, you just give me your email and then I will provide you with this kind of information, because I think it's a good question, and, in fact, as it is more of a technical thing, I can give you the ‑‑ the details but I can't tell you, it's something that it is secured.

>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: I think this is a very technical problem.  I think from my own standings, there are so many solutions in this area for the security.  I don't see this as a very large technical problem, from a just pure technical point of view.  Yes, thank you very much.

>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: Yes, thank you for the presentation.  I'm from Kenya.  I didn't get an idea actually how either in China or in Portugal you are collaborating with the national research education networks.  How does this project link up with research and networks in Portugal or China or Angola, wherever you work.

>> GAO XINMIN: Maybe Ana, you have some idea?

>> ANA CRISTINA AMOROSO NEVES: Well, as far as I understood your question is a big challenge.  As far as I understood, because we are not working together, but ‑‑ but I think that our objective, it is working together, and to make all of these links, because China has all of this experience with Asia and as you saw with Brazil as well.  And we have all of these experience with Europe, with Africa and with South America and North America as well.  So I think that making these corporations something real, I think that we can achieve something really very, very good and at the very high stage, top level, but we have to work together and the fact that I'm here in this workshop is something very interesting and I think it's ‑‑ it's promising and I'm ‑‑ I'm very glad because I was invited to be here and so it is a signal that something can be done, but for the time being, it's still a challenge.

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: Yes, I agree with Ana.  This is a new milestone for us.  We know each other to communicate it.  We have background already.  So we need for the next stem., what do we want to do?  Also, of course, we are willing to work together.  So coordinate, to collaborating, to looking forward to a new opportunity and new project, yeah, some day.  So definitely, you are welcome to join us because you are ‑‑ you already join us.



>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: Thank you very much for taking an opportunity to ask a question.  Maybe this is more or less a comment to Professor Liu we have ‑‑ I work on a similar initiative of sharing JS data for African countries on organization for mapping resources in Africa.  I don't know what ‑‑ what are the challenges at first?  Because when I was working on that, one of the challenges we faced, especially for African countries is the standardization of the data from the different countries, the different countries have different GIS mapping technologies.  They expressed their data, I don't know what's the experience working in Asia and maybe some of the countries you have worked in.

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: For GIS, there are two ‑‑ actually, three components.  The one is the content.  What content do you ask, for example?  Land use or forestry distribution, something.  And second, you need the technology about the GIS.  I think there are many available tools.  Yes, this is not a big issue and the third one is where did the information come from?  This is a big trend.  This is what is the topic in Tokyo now.  So from my experience, we decide some from cost, but some from remote sensing.  It's everyday, you know, updated, this is available, you know, different signals.  So different bands.  So many information.  But right now, China developed the land, the satellites, the earth observation satellites called the ZEBRA, and I think they share ‑‑ all three of these share the ZEBRA datas in Latin America.  And China update the data in China.  And the China right now already set up drawing the program with the south Africa.  So South Africa is setting up a receive station in South Africa.  So they share ‑‑ they really share the data every day.

So this is another example for China and other developing countries to work together, and then I think Kenya.  So you can work together, if Kenya would like to do this.  We can think about it.  And we can talk about it, discuss about it and looking for the opportunity.  I think this is a good question, and ‑‑ and you are thinking.  You never think, you never get opportunity.  If you think that and you try to trace this clue, you maybe get opportunity.

>> GAO XINMIN: Yes.  Good.

We have some questions ‑‑ well, one questions from remote participants.  Maybe I ask Professor Liu.

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: Okay.  There's a remote participant.  Her name is Sehong, from Beijing university.  She says, is it fully consistent with global open access to knowledge moment?  Give that initiative and ‑‑ it's a benefit for civil society and ‑‑ and bigger developing country in China, and a significant it can not be our stated with fully supported from all other countries.

So ‑‑ and she would like to have ‑‑ to listen to other comments.  Definitely, this is good in China and if other countries would like to agree this, that would be ‑‑ that we can work together for further discussions.  This is the comments from China professor.  Yeah.

>> GAO XINMIN: Thank you.  Any more comments?  None.  So I think ‑‑

>> DR. LIU CHUANG: Oh, Japan.

>> AUDIENCE MEMBER: Well, I would say I'm very much impressed by the initiative that you folks are taking with regard to creating an open knowledge platform.  It is very encouraging and the ‑‑ yeah, I think we should really look into the opportunity to further collaborate based on that platform.  Yeah.  That's comment, yeah.

>> GAO XINMIN: Thank you.  Now, I think we have to end this workshop.  I think the workshop is very successful because you learn a lot from our panelists, Mr. Tao identifies some issues have to solve and identifies the principles, and Mrs. Ana and Professor Liu give us very practical experience and case study.  We are very interesting for all the participants, I think.

I think we already agree the OKE is a very important issue in terms of the application views and also ICT, most of it important issues.  We have to cooperative to promote such an environment to be realist.  And also some audience already raise some questions or proposals to promote some cooperation between countries at the international levels I think is also ‑‑ also opens a lot of opportunities to discuss the future.

So today's workshop already, I think, show us the workshop in IGF.  I think I can summarize two aspects.  One is a platform to exchanging building and knowledge in this field.  And the second is open up the setups and the network ‑‑ a community.  We can have some common senses ‑‑ common goals to promote in these areas.  So it's a variable for our workshop.  I do hope that we continue this workshop in next IGF process.  We also very sincerely welcome you to still pay attention and participate.  Thank you again.