‎1 See Annex I for the Panel’s terms of reference. ‎

‎2 United Nations Commission on Science and Technology for Development, Mapping of international Internet ‎public policy issues, 17 April 2015, ‎

E/CN.16/2015/CRP.2, available at

‎3 GIP Digital Watch Observatory, May 2019, available at

‎4 AI Impacts, “Trends in the cost of computing”, 10 March 2015, available at‎of-computing/ ‎

‎5 Internet World Stats, “World Internet users and population statistics”, March 2019, available at ‎; and IoT

Analytics, “State of the IoT 2018: Number of IoT devices now at 7B – Market accelerating”, August 2018, available ‎at…

‎6 The World Bank, Global Findex Database 2017, April 2018, available at

‎7 Council on Foreign Relations, “Hate Speech on Social Media: Global Comparisons”, 11 April 2019, available at ‎ hate-speech-social-media-global-comparisons; United Nations General ‎Assembly, resolution on the right to privacy in the digital age (A/RES/73/179), December 2018, available at ‎; FireEye, M-Trends 2019 (Annual Threat ‎Report), 2019, available at; Freedom House, “Freedom on the Net 2018: ‎The rise of digital authoritarianism”, October 2018, ‎

available at…

‎8 Internet World Stats, “World Internet users and population statistics”, March 2019, available at ‎

‎9 The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is one of the many entities that recognise the multiple ‎dimensions of the digital divide and work toward ‎

facilitating digital inclusion of marginalised groups. More details at ITU, Digital Inclusion, available at ‎ Pages/default.aspx ‎

‎10 Our public call for contributions received a number of suggestions on values, available at ‎ We also engaged a ‎

diverse set of stakeholders and experts to elicit relevant values and how they could be embedded in policy ‎approaches and cooperation architectures. ‎

Our engagement built on a recent surge of interest in values and ethics in the digital context: see Future of Life ‎Institute, Asilomar Principles, 2017, ‎

available at; WEF White Paper on Values, Ethics and Innovation, August 2018, ‎available at http://www3.weforum. org/docs/WEF_WP_Values_Ethics_Innovation_2018.pdf ; Montreal ‎Declaration for a responsible development of AI, ‎

‎2018, available at; the World Wide Web ‎Foundation’s Contract for the Web, ‎

available at; the EU High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence’s Ethics ‎Guidelines for Trustworthy Artificial ‎

Intelligence, 2019, available at

‎11 WEF report “Our Shared Digital Future Building an Inclusive, Trustworthy and Sustainable Digital Society”, ‎December 2018, available at http://www3. ‎ ‎

‎12 For an introduction to the underlying technology trends and impact on the economy, see “Vectors of Digital ‎Transformation”, OECD Digital Economy

Papers: January 2019, No. 273. ‎

‎13 World Bank, World Development Report 2016: Digital Dividends, “How the Internet Promotes Development”, ‎‎2016. ‎

‎14 Financial inclusion is defined as the ability to “access and use a range of appropriate and responsibly provided ‎financial services offered in a well-‎

regulated environment.” (UNCDF, Financial Inclusion, available at ‎

‎15 World Bank, World Bank Global Findex Database: Measuring Fintech Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution, 2017, ‎available at https://globalfindex. ‎

‎16 Mobile money serves as a tool for financial inclusion, allowing those without traditional bank accounts to ‎participate in the economy on a greater level ‎

‎(McKinsey, “Mobile money in emerging markets: The business case for financial inclusion”, March 2018). ‎

‎17 Women Deliver, “If We Want to Go Far, We Must Go Together”, 21 January 2019, available at ‎…

‎18 Financial Stability Board, “FinTech and market structure in financial services: Market developments and potential ‎financial stability implications”, ‎

‎14 February 2019, available at

‎19 The Economist, “Financial inclusion in the rich world”, 4 May 2018, available at ‎…

‎20 M-Pesa is a mobile money service that allows users to transfer cash using their mobile phone numbers without ‎the need for a bank account. It serves ‎

over 17 million Kenyans and offers loan and savings products as well. See The Economist, “Why does Kenya lead ‎the world in mobile money?”. 02 March ‎

‎2015, available at…-‎world-in-mobile-money. ‎

‎21 Ming Zeng, “Smart Business: What Alibaba Success Reveals about the Future of Strategy”, Harvard Business ‎Review 2018, pp 58-59. ‎

‎22 Harvard Business School, “Replicating MPESA: Lessons from Vodafone (Safaricom) on why mobile money fails ‎to gain traction in other markets”, 20 ‎

November 2016, available at‎vodafonesafaricom-on-why-mobile-money-fails-to-gain-traction-in-other-markets/ ‎

‎23 Accion, “The game-changing innovation that could bring financial services to millions in India”, 30 October 2017, ‎available at the-game-changing-innovation-that-could-bring-financial-services-to-‎millions-in-india ‎

‎24 GSM Association, State of the Industry Report on Mobile Money 2018, available at‎content/uploads/2019/05/GSMA-State-of-the-Industry-Report-on-Mobile-Money-2018.pdf ‎

‎25 World Bank, Global ID4D Dataset, 2017, and World Bank, ID4D-Findex survey. ‎

‎26 MGI, “Digital Identity: A Key to Inclusive Growth”, MGI (Jan 2019). The report focuses on 7 diverse economies: ‎Brazil, China, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ‎

‎27 See for example Virginia Eubanks, Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the ‎Poor (St. Martin's Press, 2018), excerpt available at

‎28 ID4D, available at

‎29 MOSIP, available at

‎30 Luohan Academy, “Digital Technology and Inclusive Growth”, 2019, available at ‎ Academy-‎Report_2019_Executive_Summary.pdf ‎

‎31 World Bank: “E-commerce Participation and Household Income Growth in Taobao Villages”, April 2019, ‎available at curated/en/839451555093213522/pdf/E-Commerce-Participation-‎and-Household-Income-Growth-in-Taobao-Villages.pdf; World Bank, ‎

‎“E-commerce for poverty alleviation in rural China: from grassroots development to public-private partnerships”, 19 ‎March 2019, available at http://‎china-grassroots-development-public-private-partnerships; World Development Report 2016, “E-commerce with ‎Chinese characteristics: inclusion, efficiency and innovation in Taobao villages”. ‎

‎32 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Information Economy Report 2015, Unlocking the ‎Potential of E-Commerce for Developing ‎

Countries, 2015, available at

‎33 “Riding the Big Data Wave in 2017”, Medium, 17 April 2017, available at ‎…-‎big-data-was-coined-few-8f02a5973023 ‎

‎34 United Nations, The Sustainable Development Goals Report: 2018. ‎

‎35 World Health Organization, “Civil registration: why counting births and deaths is important”, 30 May 2014, ‎available at fact-sheets/detail/civil-registration-why-counting-births-and-deaths-‎is-important ‎

‎36 The World Bank, PovcalNet, available at

‎37 This definition is substantially drawn from Recital 26 of the GDPR which defines anonymized data as “data ‎rendered anonymous in such a way that the ‎

data subject is not or no longer identifiable.” ‎

‎38 United States Agency for International Development, “Fighting Ebola with Information”, available at ‎‎

information ‎

‎39 World Health Organization, Global Strategy on Digital Health, 26 March 2019, available at ‎ ‎files/Draft%20Global%20Strategy%20on%20Digital%20Health.pdf ‎

‎40 CGAIR Platform for Big Data in Agriculture, available at

‎41 Jason Plautz, “Cheap, Portable Sensors are Democratizing Air-Quality Data”, Wired, 7 November 2018, available ‎at…

‎42 For more information on global digital public goods, see:

‎43 Paul Krugman and Robin Wells, Microeconomics (Worth Publishers, New York, NY, 2013). ‎

‎44 See “About India Stack”, available at:

‎45 Pathways to Prosperity Commission, 2018, available at‎D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspx ‎

‎46 WIRED, “Global Internet Access is Even More Worse than Dire Reports Suggest”, 23 October 2018, available at ‎

‎47 The index measures 84 countries from 2018-2019. The Economist, The Inclusive Internet Index 2019, available ‎at

‎48 Ibid. ‎

‎49 In India nearly two-thirds of urban areas have connectivity, compared to just over a fifth of rural regions. See The ‎Internet and Mobile Association of India (IAMAI), Mobile Internet Report, 2017. ‎

‎50 World Economic Forum, “Delivering Digital Infrastructure Advancing the Internet Economy”, April 2014, available ‎at WEF_TC_DeliveringDigitalInfrastructure_InternetEconomy_Report_2014.pdf ‎

‎51 The Alliance for Affordable Internet, available at

‎52 Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development, available at ‎

‎53 UNICEF, "Project Connect, in Partnership with UNICEF’s Office of Innovation, Launches First of Its Kind, ‎Interactive Map Visualizing the Digital Divide in Education", 02 November 2017, available at ‎

‎54 World Bank, “Connecting for Inclusion: Broadband Access for All”, available at ‎…

‎55 IEEE Spectrum, "How Project Loon Built the Navigation System That Kept Its Balloons Over Puerto Rico", 8 March ‎‎2018, available at https://spectrum.‎system-that-kept-its-balloons-over-puerto-rico ‎

‎56 Reuters, "Amazon plans to launch over 3,000 satellites to offer broadband internet", 04 April 2019, available at ‎ us-amazon-com-broadband/amazon-plans-to-launch-over-3000-satellites-to-‎offer-broadband-internet-idUSKCN1RG1YW; Reuters, "U.S. regulator approves SpaceX plan for broadband ‎satellite services", 29 March 2018, available at‎approves-spacex-plan-for-broadband-satellite-services-idUSKBN1H537E

‎57 The Jakarta Post, "Govt to expand broadband connectivity as internet use grows", 20 February 2018, available at ‎ news/2018/02/20/govt-to-expand-broadband-connectivity-as-internet-use-‎grows.html ‎

‎58 ITU, “Universal Service Fund and Digital Inclusion for All Study”, June 2013, available at ‎ ITU%20USF%20Final%20Report.pdf ‎

‎59 One example of building internet access around community needs, in this case health, is a collaboration ‎between the Basic Internet Foundation and health centres in Tanzania; see Vision 2030, available at ‎…. The ‎Panel has been informed that a ‘common bid’ for connectivity is being prepared by ITU, UNICEF and the World ‎Bank. ‎

‎60 BBC, Video: Internet access in Africa - Are mesh networks the future?, 28 March 2019, available at ‎ There is another example from rural England of the power ‎of a cooperative approach: farmers waived right of way charges and volunteered to help dig up trenches for ‎fibre optic cable in exchange for shares in the network. See ISPreview, “B4RN Set to Hit 5000 Rural UK FTTH ‎Broadband Connections Target”, 11 September 2018, available at ‎…. ‎html ‎

‎61 Alliance for Affordable Internet, available at

‎62 Written contribution, Centre for Socio-Economic Development. This does not take away from the tremendous ‎role that digital technologies have played in improving the lives of people with disabilities. ‎

‎63 UNESCO, “Multilingualism in Cyberspace: Indigenous Languages for Empowerment”, 27-28 November 2015, ‎available at ‎fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CI/CI/pdf/Events/multilingualism_in_cyberspace_concept_paper_en.pdf; Brookings ‎Institute, “Rural and urban America divided by broadband access”, 18 July 2016, available at ‎…

‎64 ITU Facts and Figures 2017, available at‎D/Statistics/Documents/facts/ICTFactsFigures2017.pdf ‎

‎65 Pathways for Prosperity Commission, Digital Lives: Meaningful Connections for the Next 3 Billion, 2018, ‎available at https://pathwayscommission.bsg. ‎

‎66 Recognising the importance of marketing in addressing socio-cultural issues, the Unstereotype alliance, an ‎initiative convened by UN Women, unites leaders from across business technology and creative industries to ‎use marketing-based techniques to combat gender stereotypes. Available at http:// ‎

‎67 The OECD and WTO-led inter-agency Task Force on International Trade Statistics is one example of work being ‎undertaken by the OECD and others to update traditional metrics of macroeconomic change and trade flows ‎‎(OECD, Toward a Framework for Measuring the Digital Economy, 19-21 September 2018). The G20 Toolkit for ‎Measuring the Digital Economy identifies methodologies to measure the digital economy as well as gaps and ‎challenges surrounding measurement; (G20 Digital Economy Ministerial Declaration, available at ‎ html#annex3). The ITU’s ICT Development Index (IDI) ‎measures the level and evolution over time of ICT developments across developed and developing countries ‎‎(available at…). The EIU Index ‎covers 100 countries as of 2019 using benchmarks of national digital inclusion across readiness, relevance, ‎affordability, and availability (Ibid). ‎

‎68 The World Bank, World Development Report: The Changing Nature of Work, 2019. ‎

‎69 Thereza Balliester and Adam Elsheikhi, “The Future of Work: A Literature Review”, March 2018, available at ‎ --dgreports/---inst/documents/publication/wcms_625866.pdf ‎

‎70 Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, The Future Of Employment: How Susceptible Are Jobs To ‎Computerisation? (Oxford Martin School, 2013), available at ‎…

‎71 Towards data science, “Humanities Graduates Should Consider Data Science”, 31 August 2017, available at ‎ humanities-graduates-should-consider-data-science-d9fc78735b0c ‎

‎72 Tim Noonan, Director, International Trade Union Confederation, interview, 25 January 2019. ‎

‎73 CNBC, “The future of work won't be about college degrees, it will be about job skills”, 31 October 2018, available ‎at the-future-of-work-wont-be-about-degrees-it-will-be-about-skills.html ‎

‎74 The Guardian, “All flexibility, no security: why conservative think tanks are wrong on the gig economy”, 23 ‎January 2019, available on https://www.‎security-why-conservative-thinktanks-are-wrong-on-the-gig-economy ‎

‎75 International Labour Organization, “Helping the gig economy work better for gig workers”, available at ‎ lang--en/index.htm ‎

‎76 Klaus Schoemann, “Digital Technology to Support the Trade Union Movement”, Open Journal of Social Sciences, ‎Vol. 06 No. 01 (2018), available at

‎77 WIPO, “The informal economy in developing nations: a hidden engine of growth”, June 2017, available at ‎ en/2017/03/article_0006.html ‎

‎78 OECD, “Tax and Digitalisation”, March 2019, available at

‎79 South Center, “The WTO’s Discussions on Electronic Commerce”, January 2017, available at ‎ AN_TDP_2017_2_The-WTO%E2%80%99s-‎Discussions-on-Electronic-Commerce_EN.pdf ‎

‎80 European Commission, "76 WTO partners launch talks on e-commerce", 25 January 2019, available at ‎ cfm?id=1974 ‎

‎81 UNCTAD, Trade and Development Report 2018: Power, Platforms and the Free Trade Delusion, Chapter III. ‎

‎82 OECD, “Vectors of Digital Transformation” (OECD Publishing, Paris, 22 January 2019). ‎

‎83 Michael Mandel, Data, Trade and Growth, Progressive Policy Institute, April 2014, available at ‎ uploads/2014/04/2014.04-Mandel_Data-Trade-and-Growth.pdf ‎

‎84 Parminder Jeet Singh, “Digital Industrialisation in Developing Countries”, paper for the Commonwealth ‎Secretariat, 2018. ‎

‎85 OECD, “Tax and Digitalisation”, March 2019, available at

‎86 OECD/G20 Base Erosion and Shifting Project, Tax Challenges Arising from Digitalisation, Interim report 2018, ‎available at: taxation/tax-challenges-arising-from-digitalisation-interim-‎report_9789264293083-en#page3; Esquire, “Silicon Valley’s Tax-Avoiding, Job-Killing, Soul-Sucking Machine”, ‎available at…

‎87 OECD, Base Erosion and Profit Shifting, available at

‎88 Bloomberg Tax, “What’s Next for Countries Going it Alone on Digital Taxes”, 21 March, 2019, available at ‎…-‎tax ‎

‎89 KPMG, “Taxation of Digital Assets: New Laws Issued”, 15 May 2018, available at ‎…

‎90 Jean Tirole, “Regulating Disrupters”, Project Syndicate, 9 January 2019, available at www.project-‎ ‎

‎91 For more on these processes, see Jean Tirole, Economics for the Common Good (Princeton University Press, ‎‎2016). ‎

‎92 Since 1979, the International Conference of Data Protection & Privacy Commissioners (ICDPPC) has provided a ‎forum for connecting the efforts of 122 data protection and privacy authorities from across the globe; and since ‎‎2001, the International Competition Network (ICN) has provided a specialised yet informal venue for ‎maintaining regular dialogue across the global antitrust community to build procedural and substantive ‎convergence and address practical competition concerns for the benefit of consumers and economies. ‎

‎93 The National Institute for Transparency, Access to Information and Personal Data Protection (INAI) is an ‎autonomous constitutional body responsible for upholding the right to access to public information. It is also in ‎charge of upholding the right to protection of personal data held by the public and the private sectors. See ‎…-‎informacion-y-proteccion-de-datos-personales-inai/ ‎

‎94 OECD, “Strengthening digital government”, OECD Going Digital Policy Note, OECD Paris, March 2019, available ‎at strengthening-digital-government.pdf ‎

‎95 See Creators, available at

‎96 Infocomm Media Development Corporation, available at

‎97 Minister Omar Al Olama, Remarks at the World Government Summit, 10 February 2019. ‎

‎98 The Verge, “The mass shooting in New Zealand was designed to spread on social media”, 15 March 2019, ‎available on https://www.theverge. com/2019/3/15/18266859/new-zealand-shooting-video-social-media-‎manipulation ‎

‎99 Myanmar went from minimal connectivity in 2013 to virtually half the population in 2016 owning smartphones. ‎Facebook became the dominant communications platform almost by accident. See Reuters, “Why Facebook is ‎losing the war on hate speech in Myanmar”, 15 August 2018, available at ‎…

‎100 National Public Radio, "#Gamergate Controversy Fuels Debate On Women And Video Games", 24 September ‎‎2014, available at sections/alltechconsidered/2014/09/24/349835297/-gamergate-‎controversy-fuels-debate-on-women-and-video-games ‎

‎101 The Guardian, “Instagram bans 'graphic' self-harm images after Molly Russell's death”, 7 February 2019, ‎available at technology/2019/feb/07/instagram-bans-graphic-self-harm-images-‎after-molly-russells-death ‎

‎102 Hindustan Times, “24-yr-old commits suicide after being bullied for dressing up as a woman”, 19 October 2019, ‎available at ‎…-‎woman/story- 8PlWvf0fMwcd72A5Tp8tBI.html ‎

‎103 Ofcom and UK Information Commissioner’s Office, “Internet users’ experience of harm online: summary of ‎survey research”, July 2018, available at‎harm-research-2018-report.pdf ‎

‎104 NSPCC, “Net Aware report 2017: ‘Freedom to express myself safely’”, 04 September 2018, available at ‎…-‎safely/ ‎

‎105 India alone had over 100 incidents in 2018. See Freedom House, “Freedom on the Net 2018”, October 2018, ‎available at sites/default/files/FOTN_2018_Final%20Booklet_11_1_2018.pdf ‎

‎106 United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, “Human Rights Appeal 2019”, 17 January ‎‎2019, available at Documents/Publications/AnnualAppeal2019.pdf ‎

‎107 Electronic Frontier Foundation, “India's Supreme Court Upholds Right to Privacy as a Fundamental Right”, 27 ‎August 2017, available at https://www.eff. org/deeplinks/2017/08/indias-supreme-court-upholds-right-privacy-‎fundamental-right-and-its-about-time ‎

‎108 Written contribution, the Paradigm Initiative. The bill has not received presidential assent. ‎

‎109 United Nations Children’s Fund, United Nations Global Compact, Save the Children, “Children’s Rights and ‎Business Principles”, 03 March 2012, available at ‎…

‎110 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, “Steering AI and Advanced ICTs for ‎

Knowledge Societies”, available at‎steering_ai_for_knowledge_societies.pdf ‎

‎111 Council of Europe, Freedom of Expression, Standard Setting, available at https:/‎expression/internet-standard-setting; and European Court of Human Rights decisions, for example, in the case ‎of Ahmet Yildirim v. Turkey, available at eng#{%22itemid%22:[%22001-115705%22]} ‎

‎112 IFEX, “Saudi Arabia arrests at least 13 more human rights defenders”, 14 April 2019. ‎

‎113 UN Global Compact “Guiding Principles for Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations ‎‎“Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework”, 2011, available at

‎114 The Business & Human Rights Resource Centre, available at

‎115 A Corporate Accountability Index is published annually by Ranking Digital Rights. Available at ‎

‎116 Carnegie UK Trust, “Reducing harm in social media through a duty of care”, 08 May 2018, available at ‎ reducing-harm-social-media-duty-care/ ‎

‎117 Pew Research Trust, “Online Harassment 2017”, 11 July 2017, available at ‎

‎118 Amanda and Noel Sharkey, “Granny and the robots: ethical issues in robot care for the elderly”, University of ‎Sheffield, 03 July 2010. ‎

‎119 United Nations Children’s Fund, “One in Three: Internet Governance and Children’s Rights”, discussion paper, ‎‎2016. ‎

‎120 U.S. Government Publishing Office, “Electronic Code of Federal Regulation”, 26 April 2019, available at ‎ ‎‎39e77c77a1a1a08c1cbf905fc4b409&node=16%3A1.; UK Information Commissioner’s ‎Office, “Age appropriate design: a code of practice for online services”, 15 April 2019, available at ‎…-‎consultation.pdf ‎

‎121 Elon University, “Survey X: Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Humans”, 2018, available at ‎…

‎122 Pedro Domingos, The Master Algorithm: How the quest for the ultimate learning machine will remake our world ‎‎(Basic Books, 2015). ‎

‎123 Cathy O’Neil, Weapons of Math Destruction (The Crown Publishing Group, 2016); Digital Society, “Human rights ‎in the robot age - Challenges arising from the use of robotics, artificial intelligence, and virtual and augmented ‎reality”, 11 October 2017; Umoja Noble, “Algorithms of Oppression – How Search Engines Reinforce Racism”, ‎‎08 January 2018, available at

‎124 Investors and founders are finally waking up to the gender problem in tech after high-profile scandals and ‎walkouts by employees at companies such as Google. See Aliya Ram, “Tech investors put #MeToo clauses in ‎deals”, Financial Times, 22 March 2019. ‎

‎125 Virginia Eubanks, Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police, and Punish the Poor (St. Martin's ‎Press, 2018); excerpt available at https:// ‎

‎126 Harvard Law Today, “Algorithms and their unintended consequences for the poor”, 07 November 2018, ‎available at algorithms-and-their-unintended-consequences-for-the-poor/? ‎fbclid=IwAR2yLUMpEYj8YKhvZDQktU0LNHNDateRtqVBgZHW45uHMEYubyQr36h08H8 ‎

‎127 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, “Ethically Aligned Design: A Vision for Prioritizing Human Well-‎being with Autonomous and Intelligent Systems”, available at‎standards/standards/web/documents/other/ead_v2.pdf ‎

‎128 One important discussion is on the applicability of International Humanitarian Law and accountability thereunder ‎for the use of military systems that might deploy AI. See Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of ‎Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate ‎Effects, “Report of the 2018 session of the Group of Governmental Experts on Emerging Technologies in the ‎Area of Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems”, 23 October 2018, available at ‎

‎129 Wendell Wallach, An Agile Ethical/Legal Model for the International and National Governance of AI and Robotics ‎‎(Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, 2018). ‎

‎130 António Guterres, United Nations Secretary-General, remarks at the Web Summit, Lisbon, 05 November 2018, ‎available at content/sg/speeches/2018-11-05/remarks-web-summit; “Autonomous ‎weapons that kill must be banned, insists UN chief”, March 29, 2019, available at ‎

‎131 Provisions similar to the U.S. Fourth Amendment exist in several Constitutions and the 1980 OECD Guidelines ‎codified 8 principles that have influenced privacy regulations since then. These were updated in 2013 as ‎Guidelines on the Protection of Privacy and Trans-border Flows of Personal Data and are available at ‎

‎132 David Dodwell, “The integration of mass surveillance and new digital technologies is unnerving”, The South ‎China Morning Post, 17 February 2018, available at‎opinion/article/2133617/integration-mass-surveillance-and-new-digital-technologies; United Nations General ‎Assembly, Summary of the Human Rights Council penal discussion on the right to privacy in the digital age, 19 ‎December 2014. ‎

‎133 The 2016 Privacy Shield framework (earlier Safe Harbor), which governs personal data flows between the U.S. ‎and the E.U. and Switzerland based on self-certification by companies, is an example of the former; available at ‎

‎134 National Public Radio, “A year after San Bernadino and Apple-FBI, where are we on encryption?”, 3 December ‎‎2016, available at sections/alltechconsidered/2016/12/03/504130977/a-year-after-san-‎bernardino-and-apple-fbi-where-are-we-on-encryption?t=1532518316108 ‎

‎135 For example, Australia’s Telecommunications and Other Legislation Amendment (Assistance and Access) Act ‎‎2018, available at https://www.legislation. ‎

‎136 U.S. Clarifying Lawful Overseas Use of Data Act (CLOUD Act, H.R. 4943). ‎

‎137 Brave automatically blocks ad trackers (ad trackers collect data from users’ online behaviours for the purpose of ‎boosting the effectiveness of ads and marketing campaigns). DuckDuckGo does not track user search ‎behaviours. ‎

‎138 UK Open Data Institute, “UK’s first ‘data trust’ pilots to be led by the ODI in partnership with central and local ‎government”, 20 November 2018, available at‎odi-in-partnership-with-central-and-local-government/ ‎

‎139 India Stack, “About Data Empowerment and Protection Architecture”, available at

‎140 United Nations Secretary-General, Address to the General Assembly, 25 September 2018, available at ‎ speeches/2018-09-25/address-73rd-general-assembly ‎

‎141 Mareike Möhlmann and Andrea Geissinger, Trust in the Sharing Economy: Platform-Mediated Peer Trust ‎‎( Cambridge University Press, July 2018), available at ‎…-‎Mediated_Peer_Trust ‎

‎142 European Political Strategy Centre, “Report from the High Level-Hearing: Preserving Democracy in the Digital ‎Age”, 22 February 2018, available at‎‎_hearing_on_preserving_democracy_in_the_digital_age.pdf ‎

‎143 The Guardian, “You thought fake news was bad? Deep fakes are where truth goes die”, 12 November 2018, ‎available at:

technology/2018/nov/12/deep-fakes-fake-news-truth ‎

‎144 Kai-Fu Lee, AI Superpowers: China, Silicon Valley, and the New World Order (Houghton Miller Harcourt, 2018), ‎available at

‎145 Here capacity is understood as “the ability of people, organizations, systems of organizations, and society as a ‎whole to define and solve problems, make informed choices, order their priorities, plan their futures, and to ‎implement programmes and projects to sustain them.” See Swiss Agency of Development and Cooperation, ‎‎“Glossary Knowledge Management and Capacity Development”, available at

‎146 5Rights Foundation, “5Rights Partner with BT to Co-Create with Children on Digital Literacy”, 2017, available at ‎…

‎147 United Nations Volunteers, “Shape the Future of Volunteering: Online Conversations”, 25 April 2019, available at ‎ dialogues ‎

‎148 The Times of India, “Fake news: WhatsApp, DEF host training for community leaders in Jaipur”, 19 November ‎‎2018. ‎

‎149 The “security by design” approach is described in the 2015 White Paper of Amazon Web Services, available at ‎ uploads/2017/01/Intro_to_Security_by_Design.pdf; the EU General ‎Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) contains the “privacy by design” principle; some examples of what it means ‎in practice are available at…-‎organisations/obligations/what-does-data-protection-design-and-default-mean_en. ‎

‎150 European Commission, Final Report of the High Level Expert Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation, ‎‎12 March 2018, available at https://‎group-fake-news-and-online-disinformation; Facebook, “Protecting Elections in the EU”, 28 March 2019. ‎

‎151 See for example Joseph Nye, “Nuclear Learning and U.S.-Soviet security regimes”, International Organization, ‎‎41, 3, (1987), p. 371-402; Emmanuel Adler, “The emergence of cooperation: national epistemic communities ‎and the international evolution of the idea of nuclear arms control”, International Organization, 46, (1992), p. ‎‎101-145; Clifton Parker, “Cooperation of U.S., Russian Scientists Helped Avoid Nuclear Catastrophe at Cold ‎War’s End, CISAC Scholar Says”, June 28, 2016, available at‎russian-scientists-helped-avoid-nuclear-catastrophe-cold-war%E2%80%99s-end-says-cisac ‎

‎152 World Economic Forum, The Global Risks Report 2019, 15 January 2019, available at ‎

‎153 World Economic Forum Global Risks Perception Survey 2018-2019. ‎

‎154 WIRED, “That Insane, $81m Bangladesh Bank Heist? Here's What We Know”, 17 May 2016, available at ‎…

‎155 CBS, “What can we learn from the ‘most devastating’ cyberattack in history?”, 22 August 2018, available at ‎…

‎156 Bromium, Inc., “Hyper-Connected Web Of Profit Emerges, As Global Cybercriminal Revenues Hit $1.5 Trillion ‎Annually”, 20 August 2018, available at‎emerges-as-global-cybercriminal-revenues-hit-1-5-trillion-annually/ ‎

‎157 Business Insider, “Travis Kalanick lasted in his role for 6.5 years — five times longer than the average Uber ‎employee”, 20 August 2017, available at‎companies-2017-8 ‎

‎158 Symantec, Internet Security Threat Report, April 2016, available at‎Symantec2016.pdf ‎

‎159 Europol’s Internet Organised Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA) 2018 has a summary of the evolving threat ‎environment; Japan’s National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) estimates on ‎the basis of scans of the darknet that 54% of the attacks it detected in 2017 targeted IoT devices: see NICT, “The ‎‎‘NOTICE’ Project to Survey IoT Devices and to Alert Users”, 1 February 2019. ‎

‎160 IOT Analytics, “State of the IoT 2018, Number of IoT devices now at 7B – Market accelerating”, 08 August 2018, ‎available at state-of-the-iot-update-q1-q2-2018-number-of-iot-devices-now-7b/ ‎

‎161 CBS, “Stuxnet: Computer Worm Opens Era of Warfare”, 04 June 2012, available at ‎…

‎162 CNN, “US announces new set of Russia Sanctions”, 20 December 2018, available at ‎…; The New York Times, “Signs of ‎Russian Meddling in Brexit Referendum”, 15 November 2017, available at https://www.nytimes. ‎com/2017/11/15/world/europe/russia-brexit-twitter-facebook.html ‎

‎163 Gail Kent, Stanford Law School Center for Internet and Society, “The Mutual Legal Assistance Problem ‎Explained”, 23 February 2015, available at http://‎problem-explained ‎

‎164 Bloomberg, “Huawei Reveals the Real Trade War with China”, 6 December 2018; Associated Press, “German ‎leader Angela Merkel testifies on alleged U.S. surveillance revealed by Snowden, 16 February 2017 and “Costs ‎of Snowden leak still mounting 5 years later”, 4 June 2018. ‎

‎165 TechRepublic, “Governments and nation states are now officially training for cyberwarfare: An inside look”, 1 ‎September 2016, available at https://www.‎officially-training-for-cyberwarfare-an-inside-look/ ‎

‎166 The Wall Street Journal, “Cyberwar Ignites a New Arms Race”, 11 October 2015; The Wall Street Journal, ‎‎“Cataloging the World’s Cyberforces”, 11 October 2015. ‎

‎167 The Register, “Everything you need to know about the Petya, er, NotPetya nasty trashing PCs worldwide”, 28 ‎June 2017. ‎

‎168 IBM researchers have shown it is possible to conceal known malware in video-conferencing software and ‎trigger it when it sees a specific individual, available at‎power-a-stealthy-new-breed-of-malware/ ‎

‎169 Russia placed information security on the agenda of the UN in 1998. Since then several Groups of ‎Governmental Experts have studied ICT security and three of them have adopted reports by consensus. See ‎ and ‎paris_call_cyber_cle443433-1.pdf ‎

‎170 They are composed on the basis of equitable geographical distribution, and each has included the five ‎permanent members of the UN Security Council. ‎

‎171 UN GGE report of 2013 (A/68/98), paragraph 19, available at; reconfirmed by the UN ‎GGE report of 2015 (A/70/174), ‎

paragraph 24, available at

‎172 United Nations General Assembly, Group of Governmental Experts on Developments in the Field of Information ‎and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security, report A/70/174, page 13, 22 July 2015, ‎available at

‎173 Government of France, “Cybersecurity: Paris Call of 12 November 2018 for Trust and Security in Cyberspace”, ‎available at https://www.diplomatie.gouv. fr/en/french-foreign-policy/digital-diplomacy/france-and-cyber-‎security/article/cybersecurity-paris-call-of-12-november-2018-for-trust-and-security-in ‎

‎174 Cybersecurity Tech Accord, available at; Siemens, Charter of Trust, available at ‎ feature/2018/corporate/2018-02-cybersecurity/charter-of-trust-e.pdf ‎

‎175 The case has been made strongly in recent studies such as Samir Saran (ed.), Our Common Digital Future ‎‎(GCCS and ORF, 2017), available at https://

‎176 United Nations General Assembly, “Advancing responsible State behaviour in cyberspace in the context of ‎international security”, 18 October 2018, available at

‎177 United National General Assembly, “Developments in the field of information and telecommunications in the ‎context of international security”, 29 October 2019, available at

‎178 Oman ITU-Arab Regional Cybersecurity Centre, available at‎D/Cybersecurity/Pages/Global-Partners/oman-itu-arab-regional-cybersecurity-centre.aspx ‎

‎179 CSIRTs Network, available at

‎180 Cathy Mulligan, “A Call to (Software) Arms”, LinkedIn, 30 March 2019. ‎

‎181 International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 27034, 2011; SAFECode, Fundamental Practices for ‎Secure Software Development, March 2018, available at‎content/uploads/2018/03/SAFECode_Fundamental_Practices_for_Secure_Software_Development_March_20‎‎18. pdf; SAFECode, Managing Security Risks Inherent in the Use of Third-Party Components, 2017, available at ‎ uploads/2017/05/SAFECode_TPC_Whitepaper.pdf; SAFECode, Tactical ‎Threat Modeling, 2017, available at ‎uploads/2017/05/SAFECode_TM_Whitepaper.pdf; and Microsoft, Security Development Lifecycle. Microsoft, ‎available at en-us/securityengineering/sdl. ‎

‎182 The Global Cybersecurity Capacity Centre at Oxford University has created a repository of existing efforts in ‎partnership with the GFCE: the Cybersecurity Capacity Portal, available at ‎ The report “Cybersecurity Competence Building ‎Trends” provides examples of public-private partnerships in OECD countries: see Diplo, Cybersecurity ‎Competence Building Trends, 2016. ‎

‎183 Cybersecurity Ventures, “Cybersecurity Jobs Report 2018-2021”, 31 May 2017, available at ‎ The Delhi Communiqué on a GFCE Global Agenda for Cyber Capacity ‎Building provides a framework for such efforts: see GFCE, Delhi Communiqué, 2017, available at ‎

‎184 OECD, “Unlocking the potential of e-commerce”, OECD Going Digital Policy Note, OECD, Paris, 2019, available ‎at Page 2 notes that “SMEs could also ‎benefit from multistakeholder initiatives such as the Electronic World Trade Platform, which aims to foster a ‎more effective policy environment for online trading”. ‎

‎185 In the areas of cybersecurity and cybercrime, for example, national laws and regional and international ‎conventions create frameworks for digital cooperation in addressing cyber-risks. One example is the Council of ‎Europe Cybercrime Convention, available at conventions/full-list/-‎‎/conventions/treaty/185 ‎

‎186 Content policy is one area where there are many examples of “soft law” instruments, such as the “Code of ‎conduct on countering illegal hate speech online” (agreed in 2016 by the European Commission and major ‎internet companies; available at cfm?item_id=54300), the ‎‎“Manila Principles on Internet Intermediaries” (developed in 2015 by the Electronic Frontier Foundation and ‎other civil society groups and endorsed by many entities, available at, and the ‎‎“Guidelines for industry on child protection online” (initially developed in 2015 through a consultative process ‎led by the International Telecommunication Union and UNICEF, available at https://www. ‎ ‎

‎187 The Internet Governance Forum can be seen as a loosely organised framework for digital cooperation (more ‎details at multilingual/tags/about), while the Internet Corporation for Assigned ‎Names and Numbers (with its multiple advisory committees and supporting organisations) can be seen as a ‎more institutionalised framework (more details at‎en). ‎

‎188 The Internet Engineering Task Force, for example, develops technical standards for the internet (more details at ‎, while the European Commission’s High Level Group on Internet Governance ‎has the role of facilitating coordination among EU member states on internet governance issues (more details ‎at…). ‎

‎189 See Anderson, C., Cyber Security and the Need for International Governance (Southern University Law Center ‎‎24 April 2016). ‎

‎190 Paragraph 72 of the WSIS Agenda lists this and other functions of the IGF. Available at ‎

‎191 NETmundial, “NETmundial Multistakeholder Statement”, April 2014, available at ‎

‎192 Global Commission on Internet Governance, “One Internet”, June 2016, available at ‎

‎193 World Wide Web Foundation, “Contract for the Web”, available at

‎194 Government of France, “France and Canada Create new Expert International Panel on Artificial Intelligence”, 7 ‎December 2018, available at https://www.‎international-panel-on-artificial-intelligence ‎

‎195 In 2016, at the G20 Summit in Hangzhou the G20 leaders adopted a “G20 Digital Economy Development and ‎Cooperation Initiative”, available at https:// Annual G20 Digital Economy ‎Ministerial Meetings have been held since 2017. ‎

‎196 UN Secretary-General António Guterres, Address to the Internet Governance Forum 2018, available at ‎ igf-2018-address-to-the-internet-governance-forum-by-un-sg-‎antónio-guterres ‎

‎197 Many documents and publications released over the past decade underline the need for better inclusion of ‎underrepresented communities in internet governance and digital policy processes. Examples include the ‎report of the Working Group on Improvements to the Internet Governance Forum, 2012, available at ‎, and the NetMundial Multistakeholder ‎Statement, 2014, available at…-‎Document.pdf. ICANN has also recognised the need for better inclusion of under-represented communities and ‎is working on addressing this through initiatives such as its Fellowship Program (more details at ‎ ‎

‎198 According to the updated estimate of the 2014 UNCTAD study, there are more than 680 digital cooperation ‎mechanisms developed and used by governments, businesses, technical and international organisations. See ‎United Nations Commission Mapping of International Internet Public Policy Issues, E/CN.16/2015/CRP.2, 17 ‎April 2015, available at

‎199 One recent example is the impact of the introduction of the GDPR on ICANN’s policies concerning the collection ‎and publication of domain name registration data. When the GDPR requested that data on EU registrants be ‎made private, ICANN was unprepared to adapt its so-called WHOIS policies to the new EU regulation. A ‎coordination mechanism for interdisciplinary policy approaches could have helped ICANN be better prepared ‎for the GDPR. ‎

‎200 CSIS, “Economic Impact of Cybercrime – No Slowing Down”, February 2018, available at https://csis-‎ economic-impact-cybercrime.pdf ‎

‎201 Cybersecurity Ventures, 2017 Cybercrime Report, 2017. ‎

‎202 Digital Full Potential, “Artificial Intelligence Market Size Projected to Be $60 Billion by 2025”. ‎

‎203 MarketWatch, “The Global Artificial Intelligence (AI) Market by Technology and Industry Vertical - A $169.4 Billion ‎Opportunity by 2025 -”, 24 August 2018. ‎

‎204 WSIS, available at; UNESCO ROAM Principles, available at ‎; NETmundial, available at

‎205 The IGF Plus proposal builds on previous policy and academic discussions on strengthening the Internet ‎Governance Forum, including: Report of the Working Group on Improvements to the Internet Governance Forum, ‎‎2012, available at a67d65_en.pdf; Milton Mueller and Ben ‎Wagner, “Finding a Formula for Brazil: Representation and Legitimacy in Internet Governance,” Internet Policy ‎Observatory, February 2014, available at‎for-Brazil-Representation-and- Legitimacy-in-Internet-Governance.pdf; IGF Retreat Proceedings: Advancing the ‎‎10-Year Mandate of the Internet Governance Forum, July 2016, New York, available at ‎; Wolfgang Kleinwächter, "The Start of a ‎New Beginning: The Internet Governance Forum on Its Road to 2025", CircleID, 3 April 2016, available at ‎ the_internet_governance_forum/; Raúl ‎Echeberría, "Let’s Reform the IGF to Ensure Its Healthy Future", Internet Society blog, 17 March 2018, available ‎at…; the WSIS Tunis Agenda ‎for the Information Society, Tunis, United Nations, available at ‎ In addition to the IGF, the other outcomes of the WSIS ‎process are action line follow-ups (WSIS Forum), system-wide follow-up (UN CSTD), and enhanced ‎cooperation. ‎

‎206 As of 31 May 2019 there were 82 national, 17 regional and 16 youth Internet Governance Forums. ‎

‎207 This approach was developed by the World Bank and 4IRC. In Singapore, the Technology Office of the Prime ‎Minister developed mechanisms that enable continuity, dialogue, feedback loops, and agility in decision-‎making, particularly in relation to experimentation or piloting of new technologies. ‎

‎208 On the applicability of the concept of global public good to the internet please refer to ‎

‎209 Malta proposed that the UN consider the internet as a common heritage of mankind. See ‎

Statement by Dr. Alex Sceberras Trigona, Special Envoy of the Prime Minister of Malta, World Summit on ‎Information Society Review Process, New York, 15 November 2015, available at ‎…

‎210 The data commons idea has emerged over the past year at the ITU’s AI for Good Summit and the World ‎Government Summit. See roadmap-zero-to-ai-and-data-commons/ and http://the-‎ ‎

‎211 Members of the International Chamber of Commerce pay an annual membership fee, set either by ICC national ‎committees (where they exist) or by the ICC itself (for direct members). More details at ‎

‎212 United Nations Secretary-General’s Task Force on Digital Financing of the SDGs, available at ‎

‎213 One of the first regulatory sandboxes was launched in 2015 in the UK; at the beginning of 2018, there were ‎more than 20 jurisdictions actively implementing or exploring the concept. See Briefing by UN Secretary-‎General’s Special Advocate for Inclusive Finance, available at https://www.unsgsa. ‎org/files/1915/3141/8033/Sandbox.pdf ‎

‎214 We understand ‘inclusion’ to be more than simple participation of a few ‘missing actors’ in digital events. Meaningful ‎representation requires bottom-up capacity development, preparatory discussions and inter-ministerial coordination at the ‎national level.‎