Opening Session

Sixth Annual Meeting of the Internet Governance Forum

27 -30 September 2011

United Nations Office in Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

September 27, 2011



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:   Good afternoon, everybody.  Welcome back to the session. 

 We will now proceed with welcome remarks by representatives of all stakeholder groups.  We have 22 people who will each speak for a maximum of four to five minutes, and I would like to thank the Lithuania representative, Mr. Liaugminas, for allowing the Honorable Minister from Rwanda, Dr. Gatare, to speak.

So we will first go with Honorable Dr. Gatare, please.

You have the floor.


>>HON. DR. IGNACE GATARE :  Chairman, Honorable Ministers, Secretary-General of ITU, Associate Secretary-General of the U.N., distinguished participant from the governments, private sectors, and civil societies, it is a great honor to speak to you in this global multistakeholder forum to discuss and share experiences and challenges which we face globally in the ICT sector.

Rwanda has put at the core of its development agenda ICT as a cross-cutting tool for our socioeconomic transformation.  We have completed the deployment of our broadband national fiberoptic backbone, linking all the 30 districts, with nine border points for regional network interconnection.

A high-speed optical fiber (indiscernible) network is currently operational, linking both public and private institutions, and there are ongoing efforts to increase access to last-mile broadband countrywide.

We are putting strong emphasis on e-government, ICT4 community, and private sector development, particularly the small and medium enterprise.

We strive to achiever substantial economy of scale through infrastructure sharing and cloud computing, to link our broadband agenda with our focus on private sector development, particularly youth, entrepreneurship, and innovation in the ICT sector.

Special attention is paid to information security and efficient Internet traffic management.  In this regard, various projects are under way, including national Internet exchange and virtual landing points, security operations center and public key infrastructure.

This is coupled to our effort to promote digital content development as well as capacity building in ICT.

Our recent partnership with Carnegie Mellon University to establish a regional ICT campus in Rwanda is illustrative.

Our ICT development agenda would not be sustainable without global cooperation and partnership.  That's why Rwanda is fully supporting the IGF process.  And just for information, Rwanda has hosted the East African IGF meeting this year with great participation of regional colleagues.

The multistakeholder forum was not only the venue for exchange, but for exchange best example in the challenges facing our region such as affordable broadband access, regional cooperation for cybersecurity, and ccTLD management, but was also an important arena for shaping through ICT for development agenda for the region which include the citizen, especially the youth.  We truly believe that youth empowerment through use of social media networks and other ICT tool will promote the development of ICT in our country and impact our development agenda.

We want to promote research and innovation in the IC sector, child protection, job creation through fostering small and medium enterprise, and other important reason why we are pursuing ICT as tools to transform and enrich our society and achieve socioeconomic development.

Our President is himself involved at the global level as co-chair of the Broadband Commission.

I was also very encouraged by yesterday's ministerial conference, which was co-hosted by the government of Kenya and ITU, which I want to comment right now.  The importance of ICT as tools for development was expressed by many distinguished delegates, and it seems to get renewed vigor.  This is also consistent with the IGF principles specified under the World Summit for Information Society, Tunis Agenda.  While technical issues are important, and we should collectively address those challenges, we should not stray ourselves from the real reason why we are using and pursuing ICTs.

As a conclusion, I would like to express my sincere appreciation for Rwanda to participate in this important multistakeholder forum, and we look forward to cooperate, coordinate and embark on this exciting endeavor in order to address together challenges brought about by ubiquitous use of Internet and ICTs.  I would like to thank you for your kind attention.

Thank you very much.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:   Thank you very much, Doctor -- Honorable Dr. Gatare, Minister of Information and Technology, Rwanda.  And thank you once more for having hosted the East African IGF this year.

I would now like to call upon the Lithuanian representative, Mr. Liaugminas, to make his introductory remarks.

You have the floor.


>>MR. GYTIS LIAUGMINAS:  Ladies and gentlemen, dear participants of Internet Governance Forum 2011, on behalf of Minister of Transport and Communication of Lithuania, I would like to address you on this special occasion, the opening of sixth Internet Governance Forum here in Nairobi.

Having become a tradition, this forum is one of the most important worldwide annual events of the format.  We are united by a common goal here, to further the development of the Internet as well as broad dialogue on key Internet management issues.

In six years since the World Summit on the Information Society, the Internet Governance Forum has fully demonstrated that while we are of the nondecision-making multistakeholder approach for addressing the public-policy issues and challenges relating to the Internet while also addressing opportunities for access and growth as the Internet continues to evolve and increase its crucial role of a global information economy.

Lithuania was honored by hosting the fifth annual meeting of the Internet Governance Forum.  We consider that IGF has performed a successful evolution as a unique platform for addressing the opportunities and challenges created by the rampant development of the Internet and for sharing the best practices and showcasing solutions.

The topic of sixth Internet Governance Forum, Internet as a catalyst for change:  Access, development of freedoms, innovations, despite (indiscernible) in the fast changing world.  It's crucial that open Internet access and diversity and human rights best practice are integrated on the global discussions on the Internet's future, and these factors should continue to be essential drivers behind the development of Internet.

I believe that constructive engagement of this forum will bring new ideas and inspirations for the development of a global Internet network, knowledge society, and strengthening international business relations in the field of information and communication technologies.

Once again, I would like to express the deep gratitude to the Minister of information, communication of Kenya for hosting this important worldwide event which further facilitates the development of new technologies and modern environment in our every day life.

Please allow me to wish you all many fruitful discussions during the plenary sessions and working groups, which I believe will reveal plenty of ideas and proposals.

Thank you.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:   Thank you very much, Mr. Liaugminas.

I would now like to welcome Her Excellency, Ms. Neelie Kroes, the Vice President of the European Commission.


>>H.E. MS. NEELIE KROES:   Thank you, Madam Chair. 

 Could I ask you a favor.  Would you be so kind to pass two messages to your government.  Number one, please pass my sincere condolences with the passed away of Professor Wangari Maathai.  The world and your country has just lost a truly remarkable woman.  She showed the world what a determined -- what a determined woman could achieve.  Her fight for the environment, for the poor and for the rights of women was remarkable.

And my second message to your government, if you allow me, is I'm, of course, impressed by this conference.  It is huge.  It is a real networking group.  But to be honest to you, and that is my message to your government, I was even more impressed this morning when three members of the European Parliament and myself paid a visit to a primary school, our Lady of Nazareth, in the area of Nairobi, Kalonzo Musyoka -- no, sorry; that's the name of the Vice President.  I am making a mistake.  The area of Mukuru kwa Njenga.

And the impressive attendance of 1600 children, age 4 years till 12 years, was really remarkable.  And they are learning how to deal with computers.

So that was most fascinating, with an initiative of a private group, a closed-the-gap group that indeed was offering the computer at school, made it possible that your younger generation is quite familiar with computers.  And it was fascinating in discussions with those kids of ten year that they were already aware what it is, indeed, changing the world.  The Internet is changing the world, and it's not just trillion dollar marketplace.  It is a forum where people connect, a platform for astounding innovation, and a powerful vehicle for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

And those youngsters were proving that it is making sense; that they were already dreaming about their future and the future of your country and their country.

In May at a high-level meeting on the Internet economy hosted by the OECD, I put forward my vision for how the Internet could maintain that success.  And I called that vision Internet essentials, a compact for Internet, so to say.  Because we should say an Internet of civic responsibility.  One Internet that is multistakeholder, pro democracy, architecturally sound and inspiring confidence and transparency.

And for me, such ideas are the compacts for guiding our Internet policies in Europe and in our international relations.

Let me give you a couple of examples today of how we are using the compact in the EU.

First, it can be used to guide public and private actions in cyberspace.  One of my principals wrote that the Internet must inspire confidence.  People will use the online world only as far as they trust it.  And if the Internet is for everyone, then it must be a place of security, of privacy, and safety for everyone, not just for those with deep technical expertise or deep pockets.

The European Union is working on several fronts to achieve that goal.  People must be confident about their online privacy, so we are revising the rules on EU personal data protection to make them clearer and better suited for the globalized online century.

And parents must be confident that their children are safe online.  And I'm working on a new initiative to ensure informed choices about online behavior and to protect from threats like bullies or sexual predators.

Finally, the confidence in the system as a whole, and I am working on an Internet security strategy to help us face all sorts of cyber threats to information and networks.

The compact can be used to guide decisions on how the Internet should be governed, and I support and have always supported a transparent and a multistakeholder approach.

Involving different stakeholders in policy making and encouraging transparent and accountable self-regulation is a benefit for everyone.  Indeed, Madam Chair, it is the approach the commission has been taking for many years in this policy area and others.  However, we must be clear what multistakeholder means.  Ultimately, different actors have different fields of expertise and of responsibility, and that must be respected and due weight must be given accordingly.

And I can agree that sometimes the question of attribution of who is responsible for what might not always be perfectly clear.  And the public authorities must cooperate to avoid legal uncertainty or outright conflict, especially in cross-border environment like the Internet.

On these and similar issues, I am fully open for discussions, Madam Chair.  But the fact remains that public authorities have a particular role; indeed, a particular obligation to deal with public-policy matters off- and online, and this must be reflected in the decision-making process.  Otherwise, the outcome of multistakeholderism is that lobbyists hijack decision-making that private-vested interest from the public interest and that some put themselves above the law.  These are not things I will accept now or in the future.  And in particular, the next IANA contractor must be protected from conflicts of interest and must interact efficiently Governmental Advisory Committee.

These are issues on which we have had very constructive discussions with our international partners.  Sometimes this debate for Internet principles is caricatured as an attempt to regulate this Internet, whatever that might mean.  It is far from that.

On the contrary, the space which the Internet creates for freedom, for self-expression and innovation is not one which public authorities should seek to crowd out.

Yet few people question the need to regulate the off-line world in pursuit of legitimate public-policy obligations. 

 For example, to assure trust and security, to protect fundamental rights, or to defend markets from monopolies. 

 And there is an equal need online.  As the net becomes an ever-more structural part of our economic and social framework, so grows the case for public authorities to take a role, modest but not inactive.

If the Internet is to fulfill its glorious potential, public authorities must support and protect it, but not kill it.  Regulation is only ever a last resort, and even then, keyhole surgery, rather than amputation.

We must, in particular, recognize the global character of the Internet.

In the first instance, I would welcome a degree of convergence between the different visions emerging out there from the Council of Europe, the G8, the OECD, and so on.  For our part, we are bringing our own compact to the table but also open to listening, and in the long term, we should remain open about means to achieve that goal, but we should not rule them out for the future.

Madam Chair, the Internet carries enormous potential for the future and for the next generation, and that was the inspiring issue of this morning.

For me, principles along the lines of the Internet compact provide an invasion, a lens through which scrutinize proposals for shaping that future, so let's keep an open ear and an open mind in the discussions to follow.

I think that future generations will thank us for that.

Thank you.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you very much, madam -- Your Excellency Kroes.

The next speaker on my list is Ms. Maud de Boer-Buquicchio, departure Secretary-General, Council of Europe.  You have the floor.


>>MS. MAUD DE BOER-BUQUICCHIO:  Madam Chair, excellencies, ladies and gentlemen.

When the IGF was first established, it represented a revolutionary departure from traditional multilateral conferences by co-opting industry and civil society as partners in dialogue.

The Council of Europe believes in the IGF process.  Multistakeholder dialogue about how we govern the Internet is the best way to initiate, to discuss, and to agree on the Internet's development and evolution.

The next step for us in the IGF and its regional emanations such as EuroDIG, is to move from multistakeholder dialogue to multistakeholder delivery.

The tangible results are waiting to be seized.

The Council of Europe is already delivering to the 800 million Europeans it represents.  Issues such as data protection, cybercrime, medi-crime and the protection of children from pedopornography and grooming through Internet are addressed in far-reaching international conventions.  A wealth of standards is being developed in many Internet-related issues.

Last week, the Council of Europe 47 member states formally adopted 10 Internet governance principles, but the Council of Europe is neither a divinity nor the prophet entrusted with the Decalogue carved in stone.  The work we are delivering is the fruit of the investment of government, civil society, and the business community.

As a human rights organization, we do feel entrusted with the mission of bringing fundamental rights and freedoms, democracy, and the rule of law to the IGF table.

These are the values that we place at the very top of our decalogue.

Last week, the Council of Europe further agreed on essential measures to protect the free flow of information on the Internet by helping them prevent, manage, and respond to significant trans-boundary disruption to the Internet's infrastructure.

Furthermore, our member states recognize domain names and name strings as part of freedom of expression and agreed on criteria for a new notion of media, and to help government policymakers assess the freedoms and responsibilities of media and Internet intermediaries with this -- within this new notion.

These layers of Internet governance policy focus on people and on rights.  This also means giving users the ability to manage their identity, privacy, and integrity online, and therefore as part of our long-term strategy we intend to develop a charter of rights of Internet users.

Ladies and gentlemen, my plea today is the following.

Please make sure that IGF remains a dynamic, inclusive, and efficient forum to discuss but also to deliver.  This is the best way to guarantee that Internet becomes an open space which maximizes our rights and opportunities and minimizes our restrictions.

Thank you for your attention.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you very much, Deputy Secretary-General, Council of Europe.

I would wish to respectfully remind all speakers that we have a maximum of 4 minutes per speaker, and it's important that we respect the time limit because we've got nearly 22 speakers and the longer you take, the more you deny the next speaker time to speak.

So please could we please maintain the 4 minutes.

I would like to now welcome the next speaker, the Under Secretary of State of the Polish ministry of interior and administration and the EU presidency representative.  You're welcome.


>>MR. PIOTR KOLODZIEJCZYK:  Madam Chair, ladies and gentlemen, colleagues and friends, it is a great honor to address you on behalf of the government of Poland, which is currently holding the presidency of the council of the European Union here at the IGF in Nairobi.

Now, we are gathering for the sixth time and for the very first time in the sub-Saharan Africa and Kenya, the land of the Nobel Peace Prize winner Wangari Maathai, the writer Ngugi wa Thiongo, Olympic Gold Medalist Kipchoge Keino, just to name a few.

This year's forum is being held under the topic "Internet As a Catalyst for Change, Access, Development, Freedoms, and Innovation."

Let me begin with access.

"My God, my God," Wangari Maathai reportedly exclaimed when the director of the Nobel Institute called her on that poor mobile phone connection to tell her that she has been awarded a Nobel Peace Prize for the year 2004.

She bubbled over with joy and the news spread across the globe in 20 minutes before the official announcement in Oslo per mobile telephone. 

 Today's official statistics present a very different reality.  The number of mobile Internet subscribers in Kenya has been forecasted to grow by approximately 800% during last year.  It is expected that at the end of 2010, there were almost 4 billion mobile subscriptions in the developing world.

This is why we are developing access to new technologies, and in particular, broadband networks infrastructure must be regarded as a priority.  A broadband Internet treated as one of the basic infrastructures like transport or energy.

Ladies and gentlemen, such access to the Internet should also become a right for people in the developing countries, part of net solidarity. 

 If I look at the Internet as a catalyst for change in terms of development, it is Africa where the potential of ICT to raise the quality of the life might be most beneficial.

ICT services such as voice over IP, payments by phone, usage of ICT in health, education, or in times of natural disaster have transformed or at least made life of many Africa's communities easier.

When I think of Internet as a catalyst of change in terms of freedom, I think of the advance of technologies which have been enabling in the oppressed nations to disseminate the use in times of unrest and political and economic hardships.

Technologies which acted as a tool for mobilization, thus creating space for freedom, otherwise not existent.

As I came from Poland, I very well understand that -- what it means to be deprived of communication tools with phone connections being cut, with television saying little on what was happening in the shipyard in Gdansk in the north of Poland where the solidarity movement originated.

One of the tools to combat communist regime was underground press when censored publications were reproduced often by hand or by using semiprofessional printing presses and passed from one person to another.

Ladies and gentlemen, innovative policies need innovative leadership and -- at all levels and sectors of policymaking.  Desmond Tutu once stated, "Do a little bit of good where you are.  It is those little bits of good put together that overwhelms the world." 

 Youth in developing countries can change the societies.  Business innovative leaders are young entrepreneurs.  Finally, let me wish you all very fruitful discussions.  Thank you.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you very much.  I would now like to welcome the next speaker on my list, Honorable Mr. Edward Vaizey, minister for culture, communications and creative industry, United Kingdom.


>>HON. MR. EDWARD VAIZEY:  Thank you very much, Alice.  Let me use this opportunity to be among the many praising the Kenyan government for organizing such a successful IGF and a high-level ministerial forum yesterday.  I think it served to really highlight how I.T. is transforming Kenya, and in fact, some of the transformations happening here are things that all countries with learn from.  I think Kenya is a beacon in terms of I.T., not just in Africa but across the whole world so it's been a great honor and a privilege to attend.

This is my first Internet Governance Forum and I wanted to use the opportunity as well to set out our support for the Internet Governance Forum.  When it was set up at the World Summit in 2005, a lot of people thought "This isn't going to work, it's just going to be a talking shop," but actually the fact that hundreds of people are here and there are people participating remotely shows, I think, what a huge success it's been.

I also think the existence of the Multi-stakeholder Advisory Group -- the MAG, as it's known, is also a very important element of the IGF in ensuring that it adjusts and evolves going forward.  And what we -- what I particularly support is the fact that now there are national and regional MAGs embedded throughout the world.

So the IGF is now a very firm part of the calendar.  We all know that it happens every year and it's very important that we all participate.

And it's particularly crucial that governments participate in the Internet Governance Forum, because government cannot govern the Internet alone.  It needs to engage with all stakeholders from business and, in particular, from civil society.

So while we welcome the U.N.'s Commission on Science and Technology for Development looking at how the IGF can further improve, what I would put on the record is that there is no need for fundamental change.  I think the fully open and preparatory --



>>HON. MR. EDWARD VAIZEY: Oh, thank you.  I wasn't expecting applause in the middle of the speech.  That's very kind of you.  And let me also say I thought I was going to get applause because I am actually going to beat clock.  I am going to beat this 4-minute timetable you set me, Alice. 

 The agenda here is very important, talking about many of the challenges that we face for open -- to keep an open, safe, secure Internet.

Can I also talk about ICANN in the time that I have remaining to me?

Next year is going to see a major change to the landscape of the Internet, with the launch by ICANN of an application round that is likely to increase significantly the number of new generic top-level domains.

And this will be a huge step change in the development of the domain name system which will, I hope, stimulate innovation and promote competition.

And it's vitally important that all economies, including developing countries, should look at the opportunities that these create for them.

Now, everybody knows that this initiative very much tested ICANN's policy development and decision-taking processes, and in so doing has rightly brought governments to center stage to ensure this initiative takes proper account of all public interest aspects.  Many of the issues that concern all of us here.

And it's vitally important that all stakeholders, including governments, through the GAC, engage in ICANN's open and transparent processes to ensure that the domain name system remains dynamic and supportive of the global information economy.

So I applaud ICANN's acceptance of the recommendations of the independent Accountability and Transparency Review Team established under the Affirmation of Commitments, and it's important that these changes are implemented as soon as practicable.

I've touched on many issues and may I point that many of them will also be discussed in November at the London Conference on Cyberspace being hosted by Foreign Secretary Hague in London, to which we expect more than 70 conferences -- countries to attend.

I'm not sure we can match, Alice, your organizational skills or the fantastic sessions that you've put on for us here, but we will try and rise to the quality that you have set us.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you very much.

Thank you very much, Honorable Vaizey.  I would like to invite Mr. Janis Karklins, Assistant Director-General, UNESCO.  Mr. Karklins, please.


>>MR. JANIS KARKLINS:  Thank you, Alice.  Honorable ministers, Assistant Secretary-General, excellencies, distinguished delegates, ladies and gentlemen.

On behalf of UNESCO, I would like to say that it is a great pleasure for me to address the sixth edition of Internet Governance Forum, the first meeting in the extended five years mandate.

I would like to express our gratitude to the host, the Kenyan government, for their hospitality and thank the Multistakeholder Advisory Group and IGF Secretariat for excellent preparations that I am sure will bring us to a successful end of this forum.

During the past five years, the multistakeholder nature of the IGF has successfully fostered the exchange of ideas, proposals, and approaches among all actors, creating the consensus-building platform.

In addition, the IGF has protectively remained on top of key public policy issues.  UNESCO has been an active supporter of IGF since its outset.  Many of our current activities fall into the domain-related forum.  Recently, upon the request of numerous governments, UNESCO undertook a reflection and analysis on the opportunities and challenges that have emerged from the development of the Internet.

One of the conclusions of the study is that the focus of international debate will gradually shift from infrastructure and access to issues related to actual use of Internet.

This is fundamental change in comparison to the focus over the past seven or eight years.

At the -- at the core of the WSIS negotiations seven years ago was the issue how to provide broader access to Internet and infrastructure development.

Today, we are talking about high-speed access, broadband, as well as the theoretical ability of 5 billion mobile telephone users to access the net via their handheld devices.

Infrastructure development is considerable, in the past five to seven years.  Africa is embraced with the optical cable that has increased the speed of access considerably.

However, in terms of content development, we cannot observe the same comparative progress.  In many parts of the world, local content production, including services, usually lags behind of infrastructure development and does not generate sufficient returns to the investment made in infrastructure.

Innovation is driving not only the technological development of Internet, but also the applications and the services that are offered.  In other words, use.

In this regard, we see huge potential for educational, cultural, scientific, and medicine in practical terms, use in all sectors of everyday life.

At the same time, we observe an increase in misuse of the Internet which gives rise to legitimate concerns and discussions about the needs for regulation.

This is a very complex issue because of the trans-boundary nature of the Internet, but whichever direction the debate takes, several fundamental principles need to be observed.

Freedom of expression should not be limited.  Access to information should be assured.  The privacy of users should be ensured.  The quality content development in multiple languages should be stimulated and supported.  And the multistakeholder collaborative nature of the Internet should be upheld at all costs.

Let me conclude, ladies and gentlemen, by reiterating UNESCO's commitment to IGF, the multistakeholder principle, and our contribution to the working group on improvements of the IGF.

Our goal is to promote inclusive knowledge societies and clearly the governance of the Internet plays a central role in achieving that goal.

We owe it to the future generations.  As a young Egyptian tweeted from Tahrir Square following the announcement of Mubarak's resignation in February this year, "My dad hugged me after the news and said 'Your generation did what a curse could only dream for us.  I am sorry we didn't dry hard enough.'"

In 10 years from now, we should not have to be sorry for not having tried hard enough.

Thank you for listening.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you very much, Mr. Karklins.  I now wish to invite Mr. Larry Strickling, Assistant Secretary for Communications and Information, NTIA, U.S. Department of Commerce.  You're welcome, Mr. Strickling.


>>MR. LARRY STRICKLING:  Thank you, Alice, and thank you to the Kenyan government for organizing this terrific event.

On behalf of the United States government, I have three points to make and one request.

My first point:  The Internet that we enjoy today, this marvelous engine of economic growth and innovation, did not happen -- did not develop by happenstance.  It emerged as -- from the hard work of multistakeholder organizations such as the Internet Society, the Internet Engineering Task Force, the World Wide Web Consortium.

These organizations have played a major role in designing and operating the Internet we know today.

And these multistakeholder processes have succeeded by their very nature of openness and inclusiveness.  They are most capable of attacking issues with speed and flexibility.  By engaging all interested parties, these open multistakeholder processes encourage much broader and more creative problem solving.

These attributes of speed, flexibility, and de-centralized problem solving stand in stark contrast to a more traditional regulatory top-down model characterized by rigid processes, regulatory capture by incumbents, and in so many cases, impasse or stalemate.

My second point is that the future of the Internet is at risk.  The multistakeholder model is being challenged.

In the last year, we have seen more and more instances of restrictions on the free flow of information online.  Disputes between standards bodies and even appeals from incumbent carriers for government intervention on the terms and conditions for exchanging Internet traffic.

We have seen statements from international organizations and some governments that call for more direct regulation of the Internet.

For example, earlier this month, IBSA called for the creation of an appropriate U.N. body to coordinate and evolve global public policies pertaining to the Internet.  IBSA urged that this new governmental organization should oversee all bodies responsible for technical and operational functioning of the Internet. 

 Which brings me to my third point, which is that African nations and the developing world should have a stake in this battle.

Where Africans have chosen the path of openness and inclusion, two key attributes of the multistakeholder process, the rewards have been great.

Take the example here of the Kenya Internet Exchange Point.  Before the KIXP, there was no Internet exchange point in the African continent between Morocco and South Africa.  All Internet traffic was routed internationally, and international lines here were dominated by a monopoly incumbent carrier.

Today, 25 members peer at the exchange point, including 16 ISPs, three backbone gateways and a government network.  KIXP has reduced costs and increased speeds.  It has encouraged the development of local content leading to financial opportunities for entrepreneurs in Kenya.  It has served as an example for other African countries to create their own Internet exchange points.

So the choice for the developing world is clear:  Rely on closed heavily regulated systems and stagnate or choose openness and inclusiveness and encourage the rapid economic growth and wealth creation that the Internet has made possible.

It's no coincidence that where African countries have embraced the open and multistakeholder Internet, the percentage of their tax revenues attributed to ICT have soared.

My request now is that all nations should step up in support of the free and open Internet and the multistakeholder process that has led to its success.  In the next year, as some seek to seize control of the Internet for governments, we will all have a choice to make.  We can choose to expand bureaucracies or we can choose to expand jobs, economic development and wealth and fundamental freedoms and rights for all.

What is at stake is the preservation of an open and continually innovating Internet.  If we want to maintain a vibrant and growing Internet and to preserve the established global institutions that helped create it, we must all take action to do so.

I look forward to working with all of you to build a global consensus with nations around this world on this important point.

Thank you very much.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you.  Thank you, Mr. Larry Strickling.  I'd now like to invite the next speaker on my list, the president of the European Broadcasting Union, Mr. Jean-Paul.

You have the floor.  Thank you.


>>MR. JEAN-PAUL PHILIPPOT:  Mrs. Chair, excellencies, dear friends, I will make my speech in French.

[scribes do not have translation]


>>MR. JEAN-PAUL PHILIPPOT:  -- a message which is perhaps a little less positive.  It is an absolutely urgent that we go from restrictions to actually proposing regulation, because otherwise, the development will be stunted and the Internet is rich and it is obviously a very -- it is very -- it will stimulate other values, but as I would like to say, in the behalf of Nairobi, I would like to say that there should be a new Internet connector.  Broadcast and broadband will join together in 2012 and the television and also the most great Internet will also join together.  And what are these rules that we're talking about for many years now?  We've been talking about private broadcasting.  60 years.  And this has been a transparent forum and it has been a proper link to the citizen.

The diversity of languages and the copyright -- respect of copyright, the respect and protection of sources and the governments own national resources and regional resources.  And Europe, in fact, made a legal framework to uphold these rules.  Now, tomorrow, in 2012, when the Internet will have joined, what will be the rules that we can turn to?

If there are no new guidelines, the rules which are -- can be applied to the television will be rapidly out of date.

They will no longer be valid, the protection of journalists, of children, of health.

Debates which for many years now have been a framework which have allowed those who look at television to have -- and also those who participate in the copyright, and we must have new -- a new technical framework, therefore, and we must participate of -- of -- it is a proper legal framework and we would ask the international and national fora to take the necessary decisions in order that the richness that we have and that you have praised many times here, that we have the broadcasts that we have had for 60 years, should be reflected in this new communications world.  Thank you very much, indeed.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  -- and ideas of the Internet.  He's the vice president and Chief Internet Evangelist, Google.  You welcome Dr. Cerf.  You have the floor.  Thank you.



>>MR. VINT CERF:  I think I should just sit down now because it won't get any better than that.

Madam Chairman, thank you so much for the opportunity to address the sixth Internet Governance Forum.

I must confess to you that this is my first visit to Kenya, and seeing the rapid uptake of Internet and mobile technology, I was tempted to say I had seen a miracle.

But I think this is not a miracle.  This is the result of hard work and perseverance, and I must congratulate you and the others in sub-Saharan Africa for the rate at which you are taking up this capability.

I want to endorse the multistakeholder model of the IGF and encourage its continuation.  I am also very encouraged to see regional Internet governance forums forming and taking action.  It's very important to get all of those ideas into the discussion, and I especially hope that the regional representatives will bring those ideas to the annual meeting and make sure that they are made visible.

Second, I want to confirm absolutely the importance of a global open and interoperable Internet.  The benefits that we get from the information sharing capability of this network will dissipate if it is not fully open and interoperable.

Third, it is time for us to focus on safety in the network.  You heard many words associated with security, with protection and the like.  Safety is a very broad term which encompasses a wide range of actions and technologies and facilities which need to be in place.  Not only do we need to be safe in using the network.  We need to feel that way as well, a point that was very well made during the ministerial discussions yesterday.

I think we also need to have common agreements on what is acceptable and what is unacceptable behavior on the network.  This is not just a matter of criminal action.  This has a great deal to do with ethics.  It has to do with people's behavior towards each other.  It has to do with norms for which business is conducted.  All of these add up to a need for a common agreement on a global scale.  Then we need to figure out how to assure that those behaviors are enforced, if necessary.

Finally, I want to alarm you, to remind you that the Internet address space, which was originally developed and designed in 1973 when Bob Kahn and I were first doing our work has run out as of February of this year.  IP version 4 went into operation on January 1st, 1983.  On June 8th, 2011, a test was performed, thanks to the Internet society's initiation called world IPv6 day.  On that day, very many of us, including Google and others, turned on the IPv6 protocol in addition to IP version 4, and lo and behold, the network did not collapse.

We are intending with our colleagues to turn on IP version 6 once again for a week.  The proposed date is June 6th, 2012.  But what would be especially wonderful would be on January 1st, 2013, 30 years to the day that IP version 4 was turned on, that we all turn on and leave on IP version 6.

Thank you, Madam Chairman.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:   Thank you very much, Dr. Cerf.

I would like to introduce my next speaker, Mr. Tom Omariba.  He is the chair of the Telecommunications Service Providers Association of Kenya and our industry representative.

Mr. Omariba.


>>MR. TOM OMARIBA:   Thanks, Alice.

Distinguished ladies and gentlemen, it's a great pleasure and honor for us, as the Telecommunications Service Providers organization of Kenya, to host you in this forum.

We have all witnessed and can testify that the Internet has the potential to improve our quality of life, right from economic, social, and cultural development to a democratic citizenship.

The theme, Internet as a catalyst for change:  Access, development, freedom, and innovation, couldn't be more appropriate, especially in a meeting at this location in Nairobi, Kenya.

The Internet has heavily been dependent upon, in Africa and the rest of the world, as a key tool for development.  And, indeed, it has been observed in Africa that a lot of the innovations are demand driven and are contributing heavily to overdevelopment for various economic sectors such as agriculture, health, education, and even in the informal sector.

Stability, security, and ongoing functioning of the Internet depend heavily on critical Internet resources and how they are managed.

At the Kenya Internet exchange point that my friend Strickling has talked about, which is owned by the Telecommunication Service Providers of Kenya, we have had the privilege of establishing  strategic partnerships to facilitate availability of key root name servers for both the local dot ke domain name system and established global domain name systems.

The collaboration of the various private sector and governmental stakeholders has led to the establishment of private backbone infrastructure.

Local Internet is still on IPv4, however.  But efforts are being made by the local business community to facilitate the implementation of IPv6.

TESPOK, in conjunction with the Regional Internet Registry, that is AfriNIC, have been involved in capacity building with regard to developing IPv6 skills.

Ensuring local access on Internet exchange point is important element in making Internet affordable, and on -- affordable in an ongoing basis.  This is due to the high cost and latency as associated with the need of international links when accessing local traffic.

I am happy to announce that the Kenya industry efforts to make the local Internet accessible and affordable is bearing fruit, and, indeed, in the past couple of months, local traffic of KXP has increased 17 times.  This goes a long way in emphasizing the critical need for government and private sector to collaborate.

We are, therefore, very pleased that this forum on Internet governance, which is a key resource in development, is happening here, and we are looking forward to more fruit from this meeting that will enable for ability and accessibility to the Internet for all citizens.

Thank you.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you, Mr. Omariba.

I would like to invite Ms.  Grace Githaiga, with the Kenya ICT Action Network.


>>MS. GRACE GITHAIGA:   I will be speaking on behalf of civil society, but first I must thank all of you for coming.  It has taken us a lot of time to put this together.  We have burned the midnight oil and we are very grateful for this innovation of the Internet because we were able to do a lot of work just communicating online.

On behalf of civil society, I would like to say that the IGF in its first five years has proved itself as a discussion forum.  We, therefore, want to see the next five years, rather than simply replicating the previous five years, should concentrate and see the evolution continue.

The IGF has the potential to be a public sphere in a miniature for Internet where otherwise disenfranchised voices can have a real impact in shaping policy decisions taken elsewhere.  It should therefore provide itself up to the task of offering concrete and useful input into the policy development processes of various institutions involved in IG issue.

In most other fora, the influence of economically powerful, such as entertainment and pharmaceutical, industries can cloud policy-makers' view of broader public interest, but the IGF does not suffer from this same limitation to the extent that all participants have equal status, but we must continue to improve the IGF accessibility, including through online means.

We appreciate the ongoing work of inclusion through remote participation and support for continuing development of multistakeholderism as a model for other global policy processes.  We underscore the importance of regional IGFs and their results.

The role of civil society has seen the involvement -- The involvement of civil society adds democratic legitimacy to Internet governance processes by presenting often overlooked perspectives, including those that transcend national borders.  There's need, therefore, to provide civil society with equal opportunity and privileges in these processes.

In terms of the Kenyan and as the host, we have worked through this multistakeholder model where a lot of civil society comes together to influence policy, and this has allowed innovation and growth in business as well as policy contributions that has reduced conflicts and understanding by all.

As civil society, we are happy to see the wide catalyst in the theme of the IGF this year, with its indication that the Internet is not just a thing itself but the people are the thing themselves.  Therefore, civil society is key in democratic governance.  It is important that civil society has equal participation in building an Internet of the future.

The current multistakeholder model that provides for an unthreatening environment for robust discussions to take place is simply excellent for us.  The multistakeholder model provides an avenue for powerful collaboration and robust discussions where we can argue about issues and yet walk away and share a cup of tea.

Thank you.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:   Thank you, Grace.

I would like to invite Ms. Lynn St. Amour, CEO and President of the Internet society.


>>MS. LYNN ST. AMOUR:  Thank you, Madam Chairwoman.  Distinguished guests, it's a great pleasure to be here in Nairobi for the sixth Internet Governance Forum, and I would like to thank Kenya for hosting this conference, for where better to hold the meeting than in a country that is flourishing in terms of connectivity and innovation.  The Internet is growing incredibly quickly in Kenya, and I would like to take this opportunity to recognize all those who contributed to providing this meeting with a world-class network, one that is IPv4, IPv6, and DNSSEC enabled.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. LYNN ST. AMOUR:  These standards were developed in the Internet Engineering Task Force which has supported every aspect of the Internet's growth over the past 25 years through an open and collaborative process.

The IGF's importance to all of us who have a commitment to an open, thriving, accessible Internet cannot be underestimated.  The opportunities for engagement are greater than ever, and its purpose as a forum for collaborating on Internet issues and sharing experiences and best practices is extremely valuable.

The theme of this year's IGF is especially timely and important.  The popularly known Arab Spring has demonstrated that the Internet can be an instrumental tool to sustain people's aspirations for freedom and social development.

We are entering an age where the freedom of opinion and expression, as enshrined in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, has gained a new dimension through the Internet.  This right includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive, and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

This article encapsulates the very essence of the Internet and its borderless nature.  The Internet empowers citizens as never before, and we cannot and should not try to put the genie back in the bottle.  To this last point, the same technical developments that benefit billions of people are also used by some to control citizens and their use of the global network without due respect to those basic rights.  We recognize the rights of governments to protect their citizens and enforce laws and also that there are misuses of the Internet and illicit online activities.  However, responses to these challenges should, as a first principle, not be assumed to be different from the off-line world, and they should, in all cases, be based on due process and the rule of law.

Further, we should not endanger the architectural integrity of the Internet.  Policies and regulations that require the interruption of the Internet's infrastructure -- for example, DNS filtering or domain name seizure -- have serious drawbacks.  They interfere with  cross-border data flows and services, and they undermine the Internet as a single unified global communications network.  Most worrisome, DNS filtering and seizure raises concerns about human rights and freedom of expression.  Solutions to these and other issues must be developed through international collaboration and in a multistakeholder model.

I'd like to make my final comments on the development theme.  All the Internet organizations participating here today are dedicated to ensuring a ubiquitous, reliable, and sustainable Internet that is equal in all countries, one where the developing world is on a par with the rest of the world.  To do this, and to create lasting economic and societal impact, Internet (dropped audio) and governance must be open, transparent and inclusive.  The success of the Internet itself and the undeniable benefits it has brought to mankind clearly supports this model of governance.  And Internet users worldwide continue to have high hopes and expectations for participatory Internet.  In a recent global survey of Internet users conducted by the Internet society, nearly nine out of ten respondents indicated the Internet has a role in solving global issues, including the achievement of the U.N. Millennium Development Goals.  We all have a role -- individuals, governments, private sector, civil society -- and we all need to learn to work together in this new world.  Yet disturbingly there are many indications that we are headed to a world where governments increasingly seek to define our communications environment, severely restricting multistakeholder participation and, ultimately, the Internet's development.  The global Internet has always been shaped by individuals.  Empowering every individual on this earth to fully participate in this evolution if they so choose is critical to our collective well-being and to creating the best possible Internet and the best possible society.

Thank you for the opportunity to address you today.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:   Thank you, Ms. St. Amour.

I would like to invite Mr. Rod Beckstrom, CEO and President of Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers.


>>MR. ROD BECKSTROM:   Thank you very much, and I am delighted to be here at the IGF and thank very deeply the government of Kenya for hosting this event and also for hosting the ICANN public meeting that was here last March.  And we also thank Chairman Alice Munyua and Minister  Poghisio for their express support and deep engagement  in ICANN and the multistakeholder community.  Thank you very much.

In the past two years, ICANN has undergone tremendous positive change.  Its oversight moved from one government to oversight by the world thanks to the Affirmation of Commitments.  That agreement includes significant reforms overseen by ICANN's global multistakeholder community.  And those reforms and processes are well under way. 

 The Governmental Advisory Committee has assumed a much more prominent role in ICANN.  An extensive and constructive consultation between the GAC and ICANN's international board advanced and improved the new generic top-level domain program, opening up the right of the dot.

Internationalized domain names are now in the root for China, India, and many other countries, and the security of the domain name system itself has been enhanced with DNSSEC.

ICANN is an example of the multistakeholder model at its best, like many of our ecosystem partners:  open, inclusive, balanced, effective, and international.  With board members and staff from all five continents on this earth, and volunteers from around the world.  More than 200 countries are involved in ICANN through the GAC, the community, the board, the staff, and operations.

Another element of ICANN is the IANA functions contract which has been referred to today, which ICANN performs in conjunction with U.S. Department of Commerce.  Many parties around the world have submitted comments on the IANA contract renewal, giving voice to their ideas on how to make it even more international, and other ways to improve it.  In keeping in line with the fundamental character of the Internet itself.

The IANA contract is the next critical step in the evolution of the multistakeholder model and the best vehicle for its expansion.  Many parties around the world now seek clear progress on the structure of the contract.  The credibility of the multistakeholder model itself will be judged by how well this evolution occurs.  And we have confidence that it will be advanced.

The efforts to improve ICANN and reform the IANA contract are a collaborative global community process, and we look forward to making continued progress together working with all parties.

What we don't want to have is a small group of stakeholders who do not represent the global public interest stepping into the breach.  This could stifle the voices of those whose contributions have led to the unified and open Internet that the entire world enjoys today.

Over these past two years, we have also seen tremendous success in executing every major initiative that's faced us, including some like new generic top-level domains that have been stalled for years.  We should all be proud of our collective accomplishment as a community in moving this forward.

The multistakeholder community, with your input, has also significantly improved ICANN.  We are now implementing reforms including transparency and accountability measures emerging from the global community.  And we have made significant advances in operations across the board, upgraded the professional  staff and executive management team and clarified our strategic priorities.

So I'm thrilled with the IGF theme, which is that the Internet is a catalyst for change, for the world, but what is the catalyst for the Internet itself?  That catalyst is the multistakeholder model.  It's the multistakeholder model that's been the catalyst for the advancement of the technology, for the advancement and development of standards, for the development of policies, and for the development of the global governance structures, such as this important body and this forum that we are in today.

So the catalyst behind the Internet is the multistakeholder model, and it's helped to deliver this miracle for mankind.

So we appreciate everyone here being here, participating in protecting this model, in protecting the catalyst for the benefit of mankind and for protecting the vital institutions that we have here today, including ICANN, and of course the IGF itself.

So we also invite to you please join us in our next multistakeholder public meeting which will be held in Dakar, Senegal.  Thank you, Senegal for hosting, in about one month.  October 20th to the 24th in Dakar.  Please come join us, and help move the model, the multistakeholder model and the policies forward.

Thank you very much for protecting the catalyst that helps to drive the Internet, which is the catalyst for changing the world.  Thank you for supporting one world and one Internet.

Thank you.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:   Thank you, Mr. Beckstrom. 

 The next speaker on my list is Mr. Masahiro Yoshizaki from the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication, Japan.


>>MR. MASAHIRO YOSHIZAKI:   Thank you, Alice.  It's my great pleasure to make the remarks.  First of all, regarding the great east Japan earthquake which struck on March 11th, I greatly appreciate many countries' cooperation and support, such as sending rescue teams, food, water, so on.

This earthquake damaged total of approximately 1.9 million fixed line services, and 29,000 mobile phone base stations.  Public and private efforts for the recovery of the infrastructure led to a successful recovery by the end of April, except in a few regions.

The disaster reminded us of the importance and effectiveness of the Internet, including social media, SMS and Twitter, as well as TV and radio.

Immediately after the disaster, people used SMS and were able to confirm the well-being of their families and friends.  Furthermore, the Internet was utilized as a useful means to distribute information in the recovery phase.  Volunteers and private companies set up Web site that showed the situation of damage and recovery in each area, and matched people who wanted to send goods with those who wanted to receive goods.  On the other hand, the disaster caused congestion and communication disruption in a broad area.  Therefore, we have studied future Internet utilization and network infrastructure, considering that disaster.

This April, this distribution of IPv6 address in the Asia-Pacific area finished earlier than in other areas, and Internet connection services with IPv6 for general users have already started in Japan.  I will promote the use of IPv6 and the cooperation between the public and private sectors.  In this way, the environment and issues surrounding the Internet are becoming more complex.  The United Nations General Assembly held on November last year decided that extend the IGF mandate for another five years.  This decision is a result of the expectation and respected exchange of opinions among multistakeholders and the evaluation of the IGF's past work.

While the Internet will develop further and related issues will become more complex, I would like to convey Japanese work and  experience to the world and contribute to the discussion about Internet governance.

Finally, regarding the earthquake, I appreciate many countries' cooperation and support again, and I hope that this forum will end successfully.

Thank you.

[ Applause ]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you very much, Mr. Yoshizaki.  I would now like to invite Mr. Francis Wangusi, who is the Acting Director-General of the Communications Commission of Kenya.


>>MR. FRANCIS WANGUSI: Our friends from the world of Internet, ladies and gentlemen, may I also add to the voices of the Kenyans who have spoken before me to welcome you to Kenya.

And I want to say that this forum is an important one to us.  As a developing country who is moving towards using Internet in its socioeconomic development, we will want to say that this is a very good forum for us.

As policy implementers and the regulatory agents in Kenya, we have been keen not to lose focus on the need for us to ensure the ICT sector remains dynamic.  This is because among many other reasons, it is indeed a central pillar is scaling our socioeconomic development.  As a principle, CCK continuously strives to maintain consultative relationships among stakeholders in the sector.  This is one of the key operative words in our regulatory regime, noting that this is one of the principles that have enabled ICT sector to be one of the fastest industries in Kenya.

Ladies and gentlemen, in our country's development plan, as echoed by our minister in his remarks earlier, ICT has a critical role to play in accelerating the transformation of Kenya into an industrialized nation. 

 Currently, the sector contributes about 2.8% to the gross domestic product.  We are, therefore, keen to ensure that the uptake and usage of ICT services in the country is increased through various regulatory mechanisms we employ.

One of the key focus areas is the reduction in costs of communication, access to electronic infrastructure, and reduction to barriers to electronic -- I mean, to promote competition in the sector.

This is because we believe that a vibrant ICT is an enabler for other sectors of the economy as we aspire to grow into the knowledge economy.

We continuously and consciously make the effort to keep up with the best international practices in regulation, so that we can also stay abreast with the fast pace of the sector growth.

I'm happy to note here that the tele-density of over 65% in the country of -- in the country has been realized.  Mobile connectivity is the largest contributor to the growth of the Internet in the country, and in addition, with the increased access to mobile services we have also been seeing robust growth in the mobile Internet market.

As a matter of fact, this is a good indication that mobile cellular operators in Kenya have recognized the Internet as the next frontier for service diversification as the voice market becomes saturated.  Kenyans are known to be among the heavy users of social media, including Facebook and Twitter, whose popularity has continued to increase.

In the last five years, the number of Internet users in Kenya was recorded as more than 12 million.  However, even Internet access increase -- I mean, as Internet access increases, the pace of broadband growth is still slow. 

 The good news is that there is a positive mind-set in the industry to boost broadband access through steady reduction of broadband tariffs and vibrant approaches to increase the last-mile broadband connectivity necessary for fast access to Internet.

There is a huge potential in the mobile sector, which now boasts over 25 million subscriptions to a population of 40 million. 

 In the segment of mobile usage, over 70% of consumers use mobile money transfer services.  As operators increase focus on the broadband market, we are bound to see more investments in this market segment with increased value-added services to benefit the consumer especially in the Internet.

In our endeavor to pursue evidence of best regulation, CCK has just concluded the ICT study gap which will help us determine the relevant interventions to ensure access to communication services by all in Kenya. 

 We value the outcome of this study because it forms the basis for deployment and implementation of the broadband strategy in the country.  We shall continue to work with government and other stakeholders in order to address the identified obstacles that curtail increasing coverage in underserved areas.

These are mainly high operational and maintenance costs occasioned mainly by lack of electricity, access to roads, and cable vandalism.

The study further revealed that the majority of the sparsely populated parts of Kenya lacked even basic communication services.  The government is putting mechanisms in place to operationalize the Universal Service Fund which we expect to provide good intervention in closing the access gaps.

Finally, this forum has provided a much-needed platform for all of us to share and learn from each other's rich experiences as we dialogue.  It's my sincere hope that at the end of the forum, all of us -- the industry, service players, consumers, civil society, government, and the IGF fraternity in general -- will be able to at least look for mechanisms of defending the fundamental right of the child on the net.

I think as we end up our forum in the next three days, we should be able at least to accept all of us to be responsible and accountable to this young child that we are bringing out.

It is said in my own language that when a child is born, you never know whether he's going to be a president or a thief.  It is the way you bring that child up that will make that child what it is going to be in the society.

So we are happy with the Internet but we hope it is not going to be a monster; that it will have to evolutionize this world in their own way but in the right way. 

 Thank you very much.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you, Mr. Wangusi. 

 I would now like to welcome Mr. Adiel Akplogan, the CEO of the African Network Information Centre, AfriNIC.


>>MR. ADIEL AKPLOGAN:  Thank you Chairman.

Honorable and excellency minister, government representatives, and distinguished delegates, it is an honor for me to talk here today in the name of the African Internet technical community, not only because this is the first IGF meeting in sub-Sahara Africa, but because it is in Kenya.

It is in Kenya, a country which has given us a model not only in terms of multistakeholder, but also in terms of innovation.  I would like to thank you for giving us this example in Africa to follow.

When we are talking about IGF, we should not lose sight on why the IGF was created.

The IGF was a process by which we get everybody together to explore and discuss issues and identify avenues for solving them through a multistakeholder consultation link.

The ITU -- the IGF has to bring together all actors from ICANN to ITU.  The IGF should not be seen as an off-the-shelf solution for our problem, but rather an exploratory and informative tool serving the development of the Internet.

The IGF has helped all of us get a deeper sense on what a multistakeholder problem-solving approach looks like.

Hundreds of workshops took place during the past IGF meeting.  Those workshops have led to several cooperation projects and also business initiatives.

The IGF must continue exploring this collaborative approach.  It has to evolve increasing and raising the level of discussion we are having, building on past experience and new identified issues.

Looking at this with an African perspective, it's clear for us to understand that while we are gathering here at the IGF meeting and having the opportunity to share our experiences, to learn from others, and share our worries and concerns in the global context, we should also keep viewing IGF as just one of the tools in our hands to address Internet development issues.

IGF will not solve everything for us.

In order to gain more focus on our issue, we need to really look into localizing and regionalizing the IGF model, making better use of our local resources.

Since 1998, many anonymous on our continent are working hard to position Africa in the global Internet debate outside of the political arena.  It is maybe time for all to seriously listen to what they are saying, by creating an environment where they can express themselves in a progressive and inclusive environment.

We have to use our limited resources, instead of wasting them, at this critical time.

There are many organizations active and operating in the continent, making small steps that are changing the landscape of the Internet in Africa.

AfriNIC, for instance, for the past five years have organized more than a hundred workshops around the continent in 45 countries where more than a thousand engineers have been trained on IPv6.

The question we have to ask ourselves is how we can bring this expertise together with policymakers in order to address our issues. 

 There is no doubt that education is key for our success.  Internet exchange points, local peering, traffic engineering, are critical for dropping connectivity costs in Africa.

While we are talking about policy, we also need to look at those aspects.

IGF will not solve the traffic engineering issue, will not solve the local peering issue, but will create the landscape for those to be addressed.

IPv6 is a huge challenge for us from developing countries.  In Africa, will we be prepared to actively participate to the next upcoming IPv6 week?  Will we be ready to allow our community in January 2013 to transparently access the Internet either using IPv4 or IPv6?  We have to continue digesting and appropriating the multistakeholder approach in problem solving at the local level.

We have to continue to cooperate among ourselves to better mutualize our knowledge, our resources, while at the same time we continue to support initiatives that are allowing us to improve our regional ICT landscape. 

 Thank you.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you very much. 

 I would like to welcome Mr.  Ramadorai.  He is the chair of ICC/BASIS and also the Vice Chair of Tata Consultancy Services. 

 You're welcome.


>>MR. SUBRAMANIAN RAMADORAI:  Thank you.  A very good evening to all of you. 

 Excellencies, distinguished participants, ladies and gentlemen, I'm honored to address you today as the Vice Chairman of Tata Consultancy Services, the chair of the International Chamber of Commerce's BASIS initiative, Business Action to Support the Information Society.

I would like to thank our host, the government of Kenya, and the IGF Secretariat and the Multistakeholder Advisory Group for their enduring support of this important meeting.

BASIS is a longtime supporter of the IGF.  We believe that no other forum provides such a unique opportunity to exchange use and best practices on a wide variety of important policy use.  We have all come to 2011 in Kenya united in a common belief that the Internet is a true force for positive change.

We have seen how Internet access can transform lives, economies, and industries.  Trends that we have been talking about for some time, including social media, cloud services, and mobility have gathered pace. 

 Yet this new connectivity brings a fresh set of policy challenges and we must continue to work together to make the right governance choices that don't diminish the open spirit of the Internet. 

 But regulation for regulation's sake is not the answer.  We need to work together to develop regulatory environments where better access to information is encouraged, the free flow of information is protected, and innovation and entrepreneurship is enabled. 

 Allow me to share an example from India with you.

Aarogyasri -- "healthcare" in Hindi -- is a unique health insurance scheme for families below the poverty line initiated by the government of Andhra Pradesh in south India.  In short, the government pays the premium for the beneficiaries, the insurance company takes the risk, and 440 impaneled hospitals render the service. 

 A digital system monitors all the 5,000 people employed in the program, and extensive use of voice over IP-based communication optimizes the cost. 

 The scheme's success has led to over 900,000 surgeries and over 550 million U.S. dollars paid out since April 2007. 

 The operating model is surprisingly simple but one which truly leverages the power of the Internet and ICTs in transforming lives and the future of the rural poor.

We must continue to facilitate the fair and effective Internet governance approaches that have been vital to making these kinds of initiatives possible.

The IGF is a unique opportunity for us to come together, to share, learn, and listen on an equal footing in a non-negotiating, non-decision-making environment. 

 Under the theme of this year's forum "Internet as a catalyst for change," I think it is particularly special that we are meeting here in Kenya, where today there are 12 million Internet subscribers across the country.  Let us all take inspiration from the healthcare worker in India, the aspiring horticulturist in Kenya, and the ambitious laundry service honored in Cambodia in making this year's IGF the most successful yet.

Thank you so much.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA: Thank you, Mr.  Ramadorai. 

 I'd now like to invite Ms. Matic.  She is the Deputy Minister of Communications and information technology of the Republic -- sorry, I think I've got this wrong.  She is the State Secretary for the Digital Agenda at the Ministry of Culture, Media, and Information, Republic of Serbia.  You're welcome.


>>MS. JASNA MATIC:  Thank you, Madam Chair.

Your Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen, it is indeed an honor to address you here on this issue that has changed our lives and that is a true catalyst of change we're yet to see.

Over the past 30 years, the Internet has brought together over 2 billion people worldwide and influenced all spheres of social, economic, and political lives faster and in a more profound way than any other technology to date.

Indeed, our ability to communicate as human beings verbally with each other has distinguished us from other living creatures a long time ago because it has allowed us to share and accumulate knowledge among us.

The written communication has enabled us to bridge time and space gaps, prevent losses, and further accelerate our knowledge accumulation.

The Internet is influencing our ability to share knowledge and accumulate knowledge in a way which is very profound and will change everything that we know.

It has truly become the backbone of the modern society and its critical infrastructure. 

 With millions of new users getting online by day and increased use of Internet on mobile platforms, its influence and importance continues to grow, as do the challenges we face today, such as preserving the openness, neutrality, and decentralized architecture of the network in order to provide for more innovation using the information and communication technologies for planning and organizing response to national disasters and other incidents, and we have seen how important the role of the Internet is in these instances.

Making a safe environment for children which are now major users of the Internet. 

 Redefining the concept of privacy which has been changed under the influence of social networks, mobile platforms, location services, and cloud computing. 

 Accessing multilingual content using the internationalized top-level domains and managing the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. 

 Improving functioning of the governments using the openly available data and more involved interaction with citizens.  Ensuring that the Internet stays the most democratic medium, the means for giving everybody an equal voice, and the possibility to create and spread information.

Results of our debate will significantly influence the way the next generations use the Web, how quickly the remaining two-thirds of the world population will get online, and if and how the Internet continues to bring new qualities into everybody's lives.

Therefore, we have to continue with developing ways for dealing with the global Internet governance issues by way of dialogue, cooperation, and consensus between all stakeholders, whenever possible, as the true innovation of the Internet requires the true innovation of the process as well.

IGF and its offsets and regional levels in Europe, Africa, Asia-Pacific, and the Americas are important platforms for bringing together representatives of governments, international organizations, businesses, civil society organizations, and the scientific and technical community. 

 Serbia also has recognized the importance of multistakeholder dialogue for the future of the Internet and the society as a whole, and we have hosted the fourth EuroDIG, the European IGF, in May this year, with a great turnout of more than 500 representatives for more than 30 countries.

As every process, IGF should further evolve, like the Internet evolved, and naturally the place to discuss this evolution is the IGF itself.

I wish and I'm sure that this forum contributes to the further development of the Internet, the understanding of the major stakeholders, the minor stakeholders, of all the stakeholders as I see all of us and humanity itself as the stakeholders in developing further this very important tool and platform. 

 Thank you.



>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:  Thank you, Ms. Matic. 

 I'm very pleased to invite the next speaker, who is the last on my list.  They're going to be the host of the seventh IGF next year. 

 Please welcome Mr. Elmir Valizada, Deputy Minister of Communications and Information Technology of the Republic of Azerbaijan. 

 You're welcome.


>>MR. ELMIR VALIZADA:  Thank you very much. 

 Dear ladies and gentlemen, dear colleagues, on behalf of the Minister of Communication and Information Technology of the Republic of Azerbaijan, as well as on behalf of ICT community of Azerbaijan, I am very pleased and honored to be here in Nairobi.

I would like to express our appreciation to the government of Kenya, as well as to the IGF Secretariat, for organization of such a wonderful event.

During the past two days, we had an impressive venue for exchange of ideas and plans for future activities of IGF.

Obviously, IGF draws attention to global Internet development problem.  Therefore, IGF meetings serve as a platform for future horizons of regulation as well as an inclusive collaboration.

Dear colleagues, as a matter of fact, Internet plays an essential role in our lives and it has become a separate and very dynamic part of the world economy, and it needs another attractiveness to be prioritized as locomotive of sustainable socioeconomic development of nations. 

 On the other hand, Internet regulation, standardization, and development are the most engaging momentum of concern of all Information Society.  Fortunately, IGF provides such unique milestone for us, and we have the platform for preparing recommendations and actions.

We understand that broadband is a real challenge for the development of every nation and it's a challenge to accommodate our joint efforts for solving the problems.

We have to have a political view, financial contribution, technological support, and global public confidence.  Azerbaijan, as a leading economy among CIS countries, is keen to implement extensively the state of our technologies to enhance and foster socioeconomic development of country.

Currently, one of the main priorities of government of Azerbaijan is to build a knowledge-based economy to expand e-government solutions and online public services.  Today, Azerbaijan achieved almost 50% of Internet penetration.  In the light of this progress, we see cybersecurity as an essential issue of concern.

In this sense, Azerbaijan signed the Cybercrime Convention in 2008 and ratified it in 2009.  To ensure effectiveness of cybersecurity, we are keen to establish national CIRT.

On a multilateral level, Azerbaijan is very closely cooperating with different international and regional organizations and initiatives, such as U.N., ITU, NATO, the Council of Europe, Broadband Commission, IGF, and several others on a wide range of ICT issues. 

 On bilateral level, we cooperate with many countries too. 

 We then strongly believe that global cooperation and partnership is the only way to realize our ideas.

Dear friends, we assure you that it is a most suitable time to announce our region is to host the next IGF meeting in 2012 in beautiful Azerbaijan, and we believe strongly that the city of Baku, the capital of the republic of Azerbaijan, which is located in the heart of crossroads of west and east as well as north and south, will show a great hospitality to continue our dialogue on the Internet governance process.

As a final point, on behalf of the delegation from Azerbaijan, I would like again to express our appreciation to government of Kenya, as well as IGF Secretariat.  We do hope to see you next year in Azerbaijan.

Now, we invite you to watch a video teaser about Azerbaijan.  Thank you very much.


[Video playing]


>>MS. ALICE MUNYUA:   Thank you very much, Azerbaijan.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone for your comments.  You have whetted an appetite for many rich discussions to come over the next three days.

Excellencies, distinguished guests, experts, and delegates, ladies and gentlemen, our goal this week should be to seize opportunity for open and inclusive dialogue and the exchange of ideas about the rich themes we are discussing in our five main sessions and more than 90 meetings.  Already this morning, we had a very valuable discussion about Internet governance for development, and I would like to remind us all that the development agenda is important to this region and hoping that we should keep it as a cross-cutting focus in each of the other key themes we are discussing over the next three weeks.

We are not here to make recommendations or develop a declaration, but our discussion must inform other international processes and especially national domestic policy.  We are very proud that Kenya has a very active and influential multistakeholder community which has, for more than five years, worked very well with government in providing advice to government on a national ICT policy and has also helped in shaping industry policy, consumer awareness, and capacity building.

I take this opportunity to thank all the IGF, all the stakeholders from different countries and different sectors.  We all have much to learn from each other and to share, and I wish to thank you again and especially to the interpreters up there, thank you very much to a job well done, to all the scribes and to the remote participants.

With this I conclude our business of the first day of the IGF.

Thank you very much and have a good evening.

[ Applause ]